Monday, September 30, 2019
INTRODUCTION The body needs to maintain equilibrium to function properly in everyday life. The most important substance it must regulate is water; water is everywhere in our body and its balance is essential for proper body function. A very carefully regulated process is solute concentration. If there is a sudden increase in water which enters the extracellular fluid, sodium ions will then contribute less to the extracellular solute concentration as the ratio between water and solute has now changed. Osmolality is the amount of solute in a kilogram, hence the osmolality in the extracellular space has also decreased. Water diuresis is the increase in urinary water excreted with little or no change in the solute excretion. Excess water needs to be excreted to maintain a good balance of water and solute inside the body. The aim of this practical is to test the effects of strenuous exercise and desmopressin (anti-diuretic hormone) on urine flow and urine sodium concentration. We will be testing the hypotheses that vigorous exercise will decrease urine flow and increase urine sodium concentration, whereas desmopressin will have the opposite effect of decreased urine flow and increased sodium concentration. Use the class data (refer to the appropriate figures in your discussion). (a) What happens to the rate of urine production (i.e. urine flow) for the three procedures (i.e. control, desmopressin and exercise)? Use your knowledge of statistics to evaluate the evidence that the responses after the treatments (i.e. desmopressin and exercise) differed from that in the control subjects. Explain the following (including the underlying mechanisms): i. why there is a delay in the onset of the diuresis after water loading in the control subject (A); ii. the effects of administered desmopressin on the diuresis (subject B); iii. the mechanisms by which a single session of vigorous exercise affects the diuresis produced by the water load (subject C). After drinking water, the control and test subjects had gradual increase of urine flow, reaching a peak then decreasing again, whereas the desmopressin subject had decreased urine flow after taking the hormone, thereafter plateauing. According to the DunnettÃ¢â¬â¢s t test between the urine flow of the subjects, the urine flow of the treatment subjects was significantly different to that of the control. There is a delay in the onset of diuresis after loading in the control subject as it takes time for the water to be filtered in the body. Water is absorbed from the gut into the extracellular fluid. Osmoreceptors from the posterior pituitary detect the water through cell stretch and initiate responses that control ADH secretion (Widmaier et al., 2014). Fluids are filtered through the kidneys and the excess water is transported to the bladder where it will then be excreted. Desmopressin decreases the urine volume excreted. Desmopressin is a synthetic substituteÃ for anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). ADH acts on the kidneys to reabsorb water. Due to increased water reabsorption, diuresis (urine volume) is decreased. A single session of vigorous exercise sharply decreases the urine flow and hence, diuresis. During exercise, you lose sodium and water by sweating so the kidney works to reabsorb the water so you are not dehydrated. This results in more concentrated urine. (b) If a control subject was dehydrated at the beginning of the practical class, how would you expect this to affect their response to the water load? They would retain some of the water and hence would have decreased urine excretion compared to someone who is well hydrated. (c) What effect does alcohol have on water diuresis? What is the mechanism of the action of alcohol on a water diuresis? Alcohol inhibits the pituitary secretion of ADH, which acts on the kidneys to reabsorb water. Because ADH levels drop, the kidneys do not reabsorb as much water and hence produce more urine, causing increased water diuresis. (d) Use the class graphs and statistical analysis of the urine sodium concentration to determine if this is different for the control and desmopressin subjects. Do you think there a relationship between urine flow and the urine sodium concentration? According to the statistical analysis, the difference between the control and desmopressin subjects for sodium urine concentration were significantly different. Looking at the class graphs, this is also true; the graph values vary significantly. There seems to be an inverse relationship between urine flow and urine sodium concentration. When the urine flow is high, the urine sodium concentration is relatively low and vice versa. (e) Use the class graphs and statistical analysis of the sodium excretion rate to determine if this is different for the control and desmopressin subjects. Do you think there a relationship between urine flow and the sodium excretion rate? According to the statistical analysis, the sodium excretion rate for the control and desmopressin subjects are not significantly different. This can also be seem from the class graphs; theyÃ follow similar values. There does not seem to be a high correlation between urine flow and sodium excretion rate. After taking desmopressin, the subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ sodium secretion rate is similar to the controlÃ¢â¬â¢s, however, the urine flow is noticeably decreased after drinking water. Looking at the exercise subjects, their sodium excretion is lower than the other subjects after drinking water, however their urine flow after a few samples is significantly increased. (f)Complete the following table: Stimulus Type/Site of Receptors ADH Response Physiological response on Urine Volume Physiological response on Blood Volume Increased osmolality (dehydration) Osmoreceptors High ADH levels Decreased Decreased Decreased osmolality Osmoreceptors Low ADH levels Increased Increased Increased blood volume Baroreceptors Decreased ADH secretion Increased Increased Decreased blood volume Barereceptors Increased ADH secretion Decreased Decreased CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that strenuous exercise decreases urine flow and hence will increase the concentration of urine. Desmopressin decreased urine flow and due to this increased water excretion, also decreased the concentration of urine. REFERENCES: Widmaier, EP, Raff, H & Strang, KT (2014). VanderÃ¢â¬â¢s Human Physiology. The Mechanisms of Body Function. MCGraw Hill, Chapter 14, page 499.
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Sunday, September 29, 2019
After John F Kennedys death, on December 6, 1963. Theodore White wrote an essay for Life magazine in which he compared Kennedys life to the legend of Camelot. Theodore White wrote that this was a time with a Ã¢â¬Å"magic moment inÃ American history when gallant men danced with beautiful women, when great deeds were done, when artists, writers, and poets met at the White House. There will never be another Camelot againÃ¢â¬ . Moss, G.D., & Thomas, E.A. (2013). Moving on: The American people since 1945 (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Marilyn Monroe Marilyn Monroe was a movie star sex symbol in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s Marilyn served as a role model for women. The fashion of the day was not about comfort but to be very sexy and femininity conforms to the prevailing sexual stereotype. Moss, G.D., & Thomas, E.A. (2013). Moving on: The American people since 1945 (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Tariff Reductions August 1993, Congress approved a new round of tariff reductions on manufactured goods covered under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The tariff on manufacturing good had been affect since World War II. In 1993 congress reduced the tariff to help the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic recovery. In 1994, Clinton followed these victories by reducing trade barriers with major Pacific Rim nations. Moss, G.D., & Thomas, E.A. (2013). Moving on: The American people since 1945 (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Peace Corps In 1961, the Kennedy administration launched the Peace corps. This was established to help Latin America and other third world countries. The Peace Corps was formed because of the cold war concerns in third world countries and from a desire to give idealistic young Americans an opportunity for public service. Over the next two years, about 7,500 Peace Corps volunteers were sent to forty-four nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Most of them worked as teachers; others found jobs in health care, agricultural reform, and community development Moss, G.D., & Thomas, E.A. (2013). Moving on: The American people since 1945 (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Alliance for Progress In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s the KennedyÃ administration developed a multifaceted assistance program called the Alianza para progreso. The Alliance for progress was established to blunt the appeal of Castroism and foreclose Soviet opportunities in Latin America. Over theÃ life of the program, billions of dollars in loans and grants from both public and private sources were fed into the Alliance for Progress. Moss, G.D., & Thomas, E.A. (2013). Moving on: The American people since 1945 (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Posted by Unknown at 2:19 AM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Motivation and Performance in Washburn Guitars - Case Study Example The employees at Washburn guitars feel motivated because of their love for the music and the care they have when making the musical instruments. Their unending love for the music inspires these workers and makes them possess a sense of belonging to their needs. These employees have an internal motivation and out of love for the music and art, they feel as if they possess an intrinsic reward, which makes them make a complete set of a guitar. According to Moran (2013), their great passion for their music and art-related jobs make them feel to have achieved their objectives in life and hence they make the finest quality guitars that search best prices in the market. The love and connection for their labor they had with every instrument make them take production to the highest possible level. Most people have greatly credited the production manager at Washburn guitars for the motivational cultures that he established in this firm. The employees at Washburn for a long time have preferred to make d10s guitars, which have been the top-selling musical instrument in the history of this firm. Many music artists term the guitar as durable and have the highest quality and it is very affordable such that even the upcoming artists are able to acquire it. Most clients of the instrument have claimed that the guitar produces the highest quality sound and has the most admired aesthetic features in comparison with the guitars from other firms. The top musicians in the world have preferred to use this guitar from Washburn due to its consistency and this has created an extrinsic motivation for the workers at the firm (Moran, 2013).
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Friday, September 27, 2019
Good life two additional philosophical - Research Paper Example No one is therefore born good or evil, virtuous or the opposite, because everyone becomes virtuous only by virtue of deed. In fact, for Aristotle, Ã¢â¬Å"By doing the acts we do in our transactions with other men we become just or unjustÃ¢â¬ (II.1). Thus, no one can be called just or unjust unless he proves this through his dealings with his fellowmen. This alone presupposes that what Aristotle meant by a good life is a life of moral or virtuous action towards oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fellowman. Moreover, for Aristotle, Ã¢â¬Å"happinessÃ¢â¬ is doing something for the sake of doing it and never for a particular purpose. The Greek philosopher defines Ã¢â¬Å"happinessÃ¢â¬ as the Ã¢â¬Å"end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sakeÃ¢â¬ (Aristotle I.2). Aristotle, therefore, gives us a very strict definition of happiness, equating it with something that is desired just for itself. This therefore does not translate as money, career, friends and family because these things are not desired for themselves but for the happiness that they can give us. For Aristotle, happiness is virtue and the only way to attain it is by living the virtuous life, or the good life. The good life is therefore Ã¢â¬Å"the good and noble performance of [a manÃ¢â¬â¢s function which is based on a rational principle]Ã¢â¬ (Aristotle I.7). From this statement of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s, not everyone can attain true happiness because the fulfillment of a good and noble purpose as a rational being cannot possibly be performed by all people. Therefore, the good life can only be had by those who live the virtuous and noble life according to rational principles. If, therefore, one is a teacher, then he must teach virtuously for that is what a good and noble life means to him, and so this life brings him happiness. For Aristotle, the good or virtuous life can only be had if one understands the meaning of virtue. According to the Nicomachean Ethics, virtue seeks Ã¢â¬Å"the
Posted by Unknown at 1:35 AM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Comparisons of the Offences of water Pollution in UK - Essay Example To some extent the Government priorities are determined by European Community (EC) law and other international agreements. There are over 300 EC Directives dealing with environmental matters: about 30 concern water. If pollution occurs, including when the conditions of a consent is broken, a criminal offence has been committed. In these cases the polluter can be prosecuted, usually by the Environmental Agency, and may be fined and made to clean up the pollution. Prosecution is a last resort. The Secretary of State has powers under the Water Resources Act 1991 to set statutory objectives, giving the Government and the Environment Agency a legal duty to ensure that they are achieved. These powers have been used to establish environmental water quality standards for particular stretches of inland and other coastal waters to fulfill the requirements of the European directives. Examples include bathing waters, shellfish waters or sources for drinking water supply. The EC surface water Abs traction Directives (75/440/EC) set quality objectives for the surface water sources from which drinking water is taken. The Water Resources Act 1991 consolidated previous water legislation in respect of both quality and quantity of water resources.
Posted by Unknown at 9:51 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Pop Culture-one artifact - Essay Example There is one real leg of a person and a prosthetic limb with a message persisting that there are no original spare parts for the human body in the poster. The company uses logos to tell the people that the human body must always be under great care. It uses the words in the advertisement, as a form of logos to convey the message that people should be careful whilst engaging in dangerous activities. In this case, the company is insisting that drunk driving can result in an outrageous accident that can make individuals lose their body parts. There are no spare parts for the human body and thus people must avoid drunk-driving at all costs. The company uses pathos to capture the attention of audience by describing the potential dangers for drunk driving. The photo showing a person with one real human leg and a prosthetic limb seeks to imply the potential effects for drunk driving, and effectively portrays pathos. It is portraying the dangers a person is exposing himself or herself to, by driving while drunk. BMW uses the photo to show the prospect of losing a body part and recovery difficulty. The photo exhibits the jeopardy of drunk driving. The utilization of this image is supposed to initiate mental thoughts and conceptions among the audience regarding the fundamental effects of driving while drunk. By understanding the potential dangers, the audience is supposed to become thoughtful of drunk driving. The Ã¢â¬Å"BMWÃ¢â¬ logo at the right corner of the poster portrays the use of ethos. The company is an established car-manufacturer and the usage of the logo will win the trust of many people. It is likely that many people will consider reading the message and put it into practice because of the brand name Ã¢â¬Å"BMWÃ¢â¬ . The company is advertising itself for the sale of cars but at the same time using its brand to sensitize people against driving while drunk. This is a
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Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Social Thought and Social Change - Essay Example Several theorists have contributed to the comprehensive view of social change, not confining the understanding of social change as associated with globalization alone. Of these theorists come three of the pillars of sociology, whose thoughts have been applied even today. These theorists include Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Their concepts might have some strands of divergence, yet these concepts were converged to forming a single praxis for academic integration. According to Daniel Bell (1999 cited in Kalantzis & Kope, 2008), a sociologist from Harvard University, Ã¢â¬Å"post-industrial societyÃ¢â¬ is a term coined to refer to Ã¢â¬Å"new principles of innovations, new modes of social organization, and [the emergence of the] new classes in societyÃ¢â¬ ¦ [highly featuring] the codification of theoretical knowledge and the new relation of science to technology.Ã¢â¬ In addition, the post-industrial society is also characterized by a rapid-growing service sector with a focus on information dissemination and modern technological drives that utilize extensively human knowledge and not human muscles (Bell, 1973, p.127). During MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s time, the dominating classes involved in the production system are the proletariats and the bourgeoisie, with the latter own the means of production. In the post-industrial society, a large and a growing number of workers are working not in factories of goods production but in service industries, all of wh ich are using their intellects and technical capabilities instead of physical strength. This class of workers, most are professionals, are what Bell calls the new class.
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Monday, September 23, 2019
Answer 6 questions from an essay - Assignment Example One would not be sitting in front of the computer or holding a pen if he had no idea as to what he wanted to write about. It is the urge to self edit that makes it hard to get started with the writing process. 2. When Ms. Flowers said that Ã¢â¬Å"writing is not just self-expression, it is communication as wellÃ¢â¬ , she refers to the fact that anything that can be read by others imparts a specific message that is understood by others. It is a form of communication that easily proliferates the world and allows for a deeper understanding and meaning of the authors work. 3. The madman is the story idea in your head that you have to get down on paper. The architect is the part of the author that storyboards the ideas of the madman in order to create a coherent story outline. The carpenter is the part of the writer who actually writes the story based upon the concept of the madman and the design of the architect. While the judge is the part of the writer that decides whether the work is solid enough to be presented either to his publisher or the public in various forms of readable media. 4. I feel that I am already applying this writing process to the way that I write because I have a tendency to keep going back to edit my work for various mistakes and possible mistakes until I get everything Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ in my mind. 5. The biggest similarity between Ms. Lamont and Ms. Flowers lies within the way they describe their drafting stage in writing. Anne Lamont calls it a shitty first draft, Betty S. Flowers calls is the madman in action. Both start off with a piece of writing that needs further work and is nowhere near ready for publication but is instead in the first stages of the writing and editing process. 6. I believe that the advice of Ms. Flowers will be the more helpful writing process for me because, as I mentioned previously, I have already began to write most of my work in the method that she has described. I am the ultimate madman, architect,
Posted by Unknown at 12:59 PM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Discrimination in sport Essay The Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport is a collaborative effort involving seven leading national organizations and is designed to create an educated public that respects all athletes and sports-affiliated personnel regardless of sexual orientation and gender identity/expressions. The Project has four main goals: EDUCATION Educate athletes, their parents, guardians, coaches, administrators and the public, plus other key influencers about the origins and effects of homophobia in sport and the relationship of homophobia to sexism and gender oppression. RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION Cultivate and develop diversified resources to ensure the effectiveness, durability and strength of the Project to Eliminate Homophobia in Sport. ADVOCACY Advocate for fair policy guidelines on teams, at events and within the workplace for lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) sport professionals, athletes and fans in sport. RECOGNITION To publicly recognize the athletic achievements and professional successes of openly LGBT sports participants, thereby providing healthy role models. Active Sports Partnerships achieve Racial Equality Standard Three Active Sports Partnerships (ASPs) have become the first ASPs to achieve the Preliminary Level of the Sporting Equals Achieving Racial Equality: A Standard for Sport. The three Active Sports Partnerships Bucks and Milton Keynes, Humber and West Yorkshire were assessed by a separate panel chaired by Chris Hudson of Sheffield Hallam University reporting to the Sporting Equals Assessment Panel. The ASPs joined five governing bodies Amateur Athletics Association, Amateur Swimming Association, British Canoe Union, Rugby Football Union for Women and UK Athletics who were also awarded Preliminary Level by a panel consisting of representatives from Sport England and Sporting Equals, as well as representatives from other national governing bodies of sport. The sports and sports organisations already awarded the Preliminary Level are basketball, cricket, hockey, gymnastics, Institute of Sport and Recreation Management, lawn tennis, rugby league, rugby union and sportscoach UK and Sportsmatch. Chris Hudson, a Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University and the Chair of the Active Sports Assessment Panel, said: We hope that this recognition of the commitment and success of the first three Partnerships will be a catalyst to encourage others to achieve the Standard. Trevor Brooking, the Chair of Sport England said: I would like to congratulate these Active Sports Partnerships on signing up to the Standard and would like to see all the Partnerships follow their lead. Sport England expects all sports to put policies, procedures and plans in place to tackle racism and promote racial equality. What Is Discrimination? Discrimination has various forms and it happens very day. Discrimination involves making choices about how we treat other people. Those choices can be made using real and relevant information or they can be based on prejudice, stereotypes and bias. Some is unlawful (for example, sexual harassment and racial discrimination)and some is not (for example, a coach who shows favouritism towards their child over other players). All discrimination is undesirable if it leads to unfair treatment of players, members and other participants in recreation and sport. What is Fair Discrimination? A good example in sport relates to team selection. If you are a coach/selector, and you have more players than you can fit in your team, you must discriminate between the available players. You must choose who will be in the starting team and what positions they will play, to arrive at the best possible team. In junior and sub junior sport you have the additional responsibility to ensure fair participation. Those choices should be based upon relevant criteria such as ability, attitude, effort, and attendance at practice. These are all fair and legitimate criteria to apply to team selection. What is Unlawful Discrimination? In sport, this is not easy to define. The Equal Opportunity Act makes discrimination on the grounds of race, sex, age, disability, pregnancy, sexuality and marital status unlawful. The laws also say that two behaviours, sexual harassment and victimisation are also unlawful. However, things like age, gender and disability can have very significant effects on sporting ability. These differences are most evident at the elite sport level. For example compare the power of the best male tennis players with the power of the best female tennis players. To take into account these differences, and to make sure there is fair competition, the law allows for teams to be organised into groups such as age groups, or single sex groups.
Posted by Unknown at 11:50 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Self-Reflection Paper Essay The verbal and non-verbal speaking anxiety signs I noticed in myself was that I kept fidgeting, and touching my hair or face. I felt the rate of my speaking was too fast and I was stuttering. I did not move around at all and my feet were crossed the whole time of my speech. During my presentation I need to multi-task by speaking about my topic as I am presenting whatever subject. Do not overthink any speech or presentation or try to impress my audience. The specific areas I intend to work on from this class is to be confident in myself and better my speaking abilities. Try my best not to overthink the presentation and get my point across as clearly as possible. Be more effective in my communication skills, deliver the message succinctly, body language, eye contact, facial expressions, and be incongruent. I would like to be more enthusiastic during my speeches. I want to learn how to speak at my audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s level and be more connected. Take in everything I am learning and keep practicing. After this course is complete I would like to accomplish my communication skills, body language, eye contact, facial expressions, and presentation skills. I need to be clear in my own head about what message I want to communicate. I would also like my sounds to convey understanding to whatever I am about to speak about. I would like to get up in the front of class at any given time and give a perfect impromptu speech or any presentation without a flinch. I understand our bodies entail many different messages, but I want all of my bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s movements to captivate my audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and I want them to be interested because of how great of communicator I will be. My plan to improve my weak areas is to listen to my instructor and peers feedback and take that in and put it into a positive and learn from it. I would accomplish my goals by reading the chapters and following the guidelines step by step. Keep practicing because they say practice makes perfect every time.
Posted by Unknown at 10:38 AM
Friday, September 20, 2019
Assessing The American Society Today American society today is one which is accustomed to the abundance of resources and opportunities that are made available to the public. For the most part, people take these bountiful resources and opportunities for granted because they have no recollection of life before their time. Until the 1920s, American society was conservative with traditional values. It was a quiet and conservative culture, however this tradition began to change significantly change during the 20th century and even more specifically during the 1920s. The United States was quickly changing with the adoption of new cultural and social values and increased prosperity, and though not all people were content with the changing culture and times, their resistance to modernity and materialism were flattened. America was changing for the better and for the future. From the revolution which defined the 1920s, dubbed as the Modern Temper by historians, emerged a changing culture in the United States. Among many transfor mations, new dominant cultural and social values surfaced, there was great economic growth characterized by a new sense of materialism and consumerism, and there was major progress in the social and cultural identity of women. The Modern Temper ushered in a more secular, materialistic, individualistic, leisure-oriented, cosmopolitan, and pluralistic society; one which has flourished to new heights even till this day. Before the Modern Temper emerged, American society was a much more culturally and socially traditional. In essence, the road leading up to the 1920s was a clash of two completely different cultures. Just before the decade, America was apparently under the attack of alcohol. In fact, the apparent effect of alcoholism on the country was so bad that drinking too much alcohol was referred to as being just as useful as a slave. It was estimated that there were 5,000,000 drunks in the United States and this issue has to be halted (Kerr). While the experience with prohibition was dismissed only 13 years after the amendment was passed, the battle over alcohol provided an arena for the mounting conflicts between the modern and traditional, urban and rural, immigrant and native, and even Catholics and Protestants (Pennock). An even more prolific event that provided evidence of the changing culture in the United States was the John scopes trial. The trial of 1925 reflected the vast cultures tha t were clashing all across the nation (Childs). More than just a trial simply deciding between religious fundamentalism and traditionalism and scientific and modern teachings, it was a keen indication that Americans had begun in a more forceful manner than ever before to debate the basic values of their society and culture (Childs). What can be seen from the Scopes trial and Prohibition is that the process of change in America had been going on for many years and that when the 1920s came along, the country finally felt the great effects. The new cultural and social values that culminated towards the beginning of the 20th century formed a decisive turning point in American history. From the culture clashes of the 1920s emerged the formation of a modern mass culture (Mintz). Many of the defining features of modern American culture such as the radio, jazz, films, and spectator sports emerged during the 1920s (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). Mass entertainment was a new concept to Americans and probably has one of the greatest cultural effects overall. Probably the most revolutionary of all was the impact of the invention of the radio. Between 1922 and 1929, radio sales soared from $60 million to $426 million. The radio brought the nation together and imposed similar tastes and lifestyles through the same news, entertainment, and advertisements, and was doing so to 10 million Americans by 1929 (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). The radio was such a growing phenomenon that by 1922, 600 radio stations were broadcasting across the United States (Radio in the 1920s). Along with the radio, of course, came the most popular music of the 1920s; jazz. The roaring twenties saw the formation of new forms of music known as jazz and blues. By the mid-1920s, jazz was being played in dance halls, roadhouses and speakeasies all over the country. This however was not met as gift to all Americans, but rather as a threat (Roaring Twenties: History in the Key of Jazz). Jazz was the music of the African Americans, putting more emphasis on the innovations of supremely gifted individuals and giving blacks a voice in an overwhelmingly white society. Such innovation could be seen by the popularization of scat by Louis Armstrong and Fletcher Hendersons big band jazz (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). To millions of people though, jazz was seen as one more cause of loosening morals. It wasnt considered music but rather just bad noise that inspired dancing with a dreadful impact on the national character. (Roaring Twenties: History in the Key of Jazz). These feelings were of course felt by white Americans who were threatened by the music. They were motivated by racial concerns and not actually by musical concerns. Critics expressed consistent political and social dislikes of the black population more so than the music itself in reports (Anderson). Clearly, jazz was not only a step forward for African Americans but it was also another clash between different cultures during the 20s. Regardless of the fact, young black men were willing to take on laws and customs that forbid them to compete on anything like an equal basis with whites to create a brand new world created by black Americans who were admired (Roaring Twenties: History in the Key of Jazz). In addition to jazz and the radio, the United States also saw the rise of spectator sports. Sports provided heroes to the vast audiences that were attracted to them during the 1920s. Many sports, including football and baseball, drew huge crowds to watch and support their favourite teams. Sports became even more competitive, especially as seen with Babe Ruth and his transformation of the game of baseball. Even more popular were individual sports, like boxing, with athletes whose talents or personalities made them appear larger than life (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). Spectator sports became so popular because people had so much more leisure time on their hands. With new technologies and increased productivity from the second industrial revolution, society needed more entertainment during their longer vacation and leisure times (Mintz, The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment ). While spectator sports did provide some food for this appetite, it was movies which filled the void that Americans had. As it can be seen, American culture was significantly affected by the radio, jazz, and spectator sports, but no new instrument of mass entertainment was as significant as the movies (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). By 1929, 90 million Americans were going to the movies each week; this was an increase of 40 million just 9 years earlier. Movies became such a collective activity for all Americans that one estimate shows that Americans spent 83 cents of every entertainment dollar going to the movies (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). While movies did provide a new form of entertainment and social demeanour, they also provoked cultural warfare. The movies presented progressively more open displays of sexuality and with ever more daring language. (Kulturkampfen (Wars for Civilization) of the 1920s). Films increasingly featured glamour, sophistication, and sex appeal, imposing on teenagers and young adults the fashions, fads and conduct that wer e a part of a new generation. Essentially, movies created a new popular culture with common speech, dress, behaviour, and heroes (Mintz, The Formation of Modern American Mass Culture ). Like the radio, the movies became a mechanism of the new found consumerism and materialism that shaped the emerging culture of the Modern Temper. Young men and women were becoming new people, drifting away completely from the cultural and social values their parents lived by (Kulturkampfen (Wars for Civilization) of the 1920s). Both men and women felt changes in their identities, however, they were nothing as profound as the changes that women felt during the Modern Temper. For many years, women had struggled to find equality and likeness with men in society. In 1920, finally began travelling on the road to relative liberation by winning the right to vote (Mintz, The New Woman). The changes in womens identity and role actually began during World War I. With men off to war, womens role changed in order to fill their place in the workforce. In fact, the socio-economic changes that occurred for women during the four year war and that were accepted could not have been achieved through any better means (Thomas). The emergence of the modern woman during and after World War I emphasized her determination to break free of long-standing cultural constraints (The Decline of the Victorian Cultural Consensus). This want for an individual identity started to take shape with in the late 19th century with emergence of the new woman. The new woman was an icon of changing norms, a woman who was less constrained by Victorian mores and domesticity than previous generations. She had greater freedom to pursue public roles and even flaunt her sex appeal, another term which emerged alongside the new woman (Freeman). The new woman was the step before the modern women emerged in the 1920s. They were the first to attend college and justified their new roles in terms of the ideal of service to others. These new women were as aggressive and ambitious as the men they dealt with (The Decline of the Victorian Cultural Consensus). What was so new about women in the early 20th century was their presence in the public a rena. Women began venturing into jobs, politics, and culture outside the domestic realms and home life that most 19th century women tended to revolve around. Still met with resistance by conservatives, such as the church and Ku Klux Klan, and on a subordinate level to men economically and politically, the new women was a symbol of revolutionary change for women across the United States (Freeman). While the new women was a major stage in solidifying a new identity for women, nothing defined the modern temper more accurately than the flapper. The flapper was completely parallel to what women were supposed to be; womens identity became alternate to what had previously existed. Flappers were more thin and flat, and exposed more flesh. They challenged old norms by wearing new fashions, donning boyish looks and haircuts, drinking more alcohol and even smoking (Freeman, Image and Lifestyle). The Modern Temper brought new fashions along with the flapper that identified people as individuals. The flapper wore short skirts, used make-up in public, which was considered to be the badge of prostitutes, and wore baggy clothes which exposed the arms and legs (The Jazz Age: Flapper Culture Style). She was a symbol not only of a revolution in fashion and mores, but an expression of their emancipation. They expressed their individuality and sexuality through their clothes, their behaviour, an d the activities they partook in (The Jazz Age: Flapper Culture Style). The female identity was completely altered by the new woman and flapper, producing a new woman of the modern temper. A conservative barrier was broken with the new identity of women in the 1920s. Sexual flaunting was a revolution that came along with the new woman. Unmarried women began expressing their sexual desire, likely unapproved by their parents, as well as courts and Progressive reformers. They were stepping outside of their traditional gender role, entering the workforce in record numbers and taking part in jobs and activities that were once associated only with men (Freeman, Sexuality). Even further changes occurred with the relations between young men and women. Though the aspect of marriage remained constant between the new and old generation of women, there was an emergence of a new ritual in the form of dating. Young women could now flirt with boys and have sexual interactions with men unlike anything their parents had experienced (Freeman, Sexuality). The new woman, more specifically the flapper, epitomized the individualistic, materialistic, and leisure-oriented society that the mod ern temper created during the 1920s. The new cultural and social values associated with the emergence of the modern temper can be credited a great deal towards the new woman, however, nothing changed American culture more so than the creation of a consumer based society. As the 1920s rolled along, major transformations occurred in the workplace and the economy flourished. The standard of living for a large number of Americans improved drastically as wages increased and working hours decreased. This change was symbolized by Henry Ford, whose assembly line and $5 a day pay scheme decreased the time it took to make a car, increased wages, decreased working hours, and essentially, transformed the American industry (Mintz, The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment ). As a result, Americans had more money in their pockets and more time on their hands. Material goods started to become more important to people as more stress was put on consumer goods and advertising. The emergence of new marketing and increased focus on consumer goods led to consumerism and materialism in American culture. Consumerism changed the cultural and social values of American society during the 1920s. Material goods that were once only available to the wealthy or no one at all were suddenly available to the mass public at a low cost. The consumer society changed Americans values in way that made them believe that all material goods available to them were a must-own product. The ultimate symbol of the new consumer society was the car. In a 10 year span from 1919 to 1929, Americans went from owning 6.7 million cars to owning 27 million-nearly one car for every American household (Mintz, The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment ). All this could be explained by the advertising which slowly changed Americans towards being more materialistic as consumer goods were being associated with human values, emotions, and social status. If you didnt own a car, a radio, or any other major appliance or item that emerged during the early 1900s, consumerism and advertising made you feel like you just werent being fulfilled. Eventually, advertising expanded to stimulate sales and increase profits, and the public was even being offered instalment credit. Mortgages were first being offered in the 1920s, and estimates were that 60% of all furniture and 75% of all radios were purchased on instalment plans (Mintz, The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment ). Consumerism transformed America into a buying and borrowing country; later on America would be a country of debtors rather than buyers as a result. Consumerisms greatest impact on society was on the cultural identity of women in the 1920s. Of course the new woman and the flapper were major symbols of the modern temper, however, they would not have made such a large impact let alone have emerged if it had not been for the focus of advertising and marketing on women (The Jazz Age: Flapper Culture Style). Advertisements for fashions like Coco Chanel had a dramatic effect on women of the early 20th century (Thomas). Sexual expression was imposed onto women through advertising campaigns as simple Coca-Cola and new technologies were focused at women in the household. Electricity and the invention of the washing machine, vacuum, and other household appliances were focused at housewives who wanted to make home cleaning much easier and more efficient. Consumerism changed the life of an urban housewife inside and outside the house. Entertainment and leisure also were changed for the women of the 1920s by consumerism. Smoking for women even became somewhat of a fad, being popularized by marches in the streets of New York imitating the suffrage marches in the 1910s (Mintz, The New Woman). Other fads such as the Miss America pageant marathons imposed new social values into young women; telling them that individualism is not just about beauty, but also about fashions, housekeeping, and appealing to the other sex. Women, and all Americans for that matter, were interested in being entertained. More fads emerged to feed Americans appetite for leisure, including Mah-jong and crossword puzzles, contract bridge, photography, golf, tennis, and bowling (Mintz, Low Brow and Middle Brow Culture). Americans, women specifically, were also exposed to new values through the movies. Sexual interactions, social interactions like smoking, and new language and slang were all expressed through movies, projecting a life beyond the ord inary which their parents lived and which they had been living. Furthermore, magazines and books expressed new social values for women which they had never experienced. Confession magazines filled the void in women by sharing stories of romance, divorce, success and failure (Mintz, Low Brow and Middle Brow Culture). Through movies, advertising, entertainment and leisure, consumerism changed the way woman lived and experienced society in the 20th century, and more specifically, produced the epitome of the modern temper through the new woman and the flapper. With the rise of consumerism and materialism in the 1920s, the modern temper created a sophisticated and pluralistic society in the United States. The new society challenged and defeated traditional Victorian mores and yielded a new generation of Americans that had new social and cultural values, and created a powerful economy that built on new businesses, chain companies, quick and efficient manufacturing, and higher incomes (Mintz, The Consumer Economy and Mass Entertainment ). The modern temper instilled a sense of individualism in Americans and challenged Americans to do and get anything they want. Simply put, the modern temper created an affluent, more secular America with more liberated and modern social and cultural values which to this day has continued to grow through industry, consumerism, and most notably, individualism.
Posted by Unknown at 9:39 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Canadas Brain Drain Issue What is a brain drain? It is the emigration of highly educated and skilled Canadians to the United States. Does Canada suffer from a Brain Drain? This is a question that economists have been trying to answer for a decade now and have conducted different studies resulting to different conclusions about this issue. There are some economists that believe that yes Canada is suffering from a brain drain if not now it will be soon, amongst those economists are Don DeVortez and Samuel Laryea who prepared a study of C.D howe Institute. They claimed that Brain Drain is real and is costing Canada Tax Payers millions of dollars. Then on the other side of the debate we have economists like John Helliwell, who compares the current perceptions to past movements of educated Canadians to the United States, and the past and current immigration to Canada from other countries, concluding that the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s movement of educated Canadians to the United States, is relatively small. He strongly beli eves that the existing data and analysis provides no evidence of a current crisis or any great changes in the tax system. So why is it that the media are convinced that there is a brain drain? This Ã¢â¬Å"brain drainÃ¢â¬ leads to the conclusions that there must be something wrong with Canada and that if nothing is done the nation is doomed. A brain drain means that Canadian productivity will slip even further behind American, that will cause even more of Canadians to leave, and the cycle will continue. Although brain drain believers donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much data to back them up, they have two strong arguments 1. The apparently small numbers of emigrants are a catastrophic loss for Canada, cause the issue is not how many we are losing, but who we are losing. 2. A definite crisis will come unless governments do something -cut taxes- for example. The main concern economists have is the future outcome of this brain drain. They understand and even some might agree that Canada is not currently suffering from a brain drain but there definitely is a problem and if it is not addressed by the government fast then there will be a major threat to the economy of Canada and then there will definitely be a BRAIN DRAIN. McKinsey & Company describes the Brain Drain as Ã¢â¬Å"WAR FOR TALENÃ¢â¬ , it is a battle of quality rather than quantity so even though the statistical eviden... ...ment does not lower taxes and other economic forces such as post secondary educational subsidies, then we will not only lose our brains but also our most reputable companies (Nortel) will move and establish themselves someplace where talent is found. Bibliography: Ã · William Watson. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"The Brain Drain CampaignÃ¢â¬ Policy Options Politiques. September. Ã · John F. Helliwell. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Checking The Brain Drain:Evidence and implicationsÃ¢â¬ September. Ã · D.J. DeVoretz. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å" The brain drain is real and it costs usÃ¢â¬ September. Ã · Herb Emery. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å" The evidence VS. The tax-cuttersÃ¢â¬ September. Ã · David Stewart-Patterson. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å" The drain will be a torrent if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t staunch it nowÃ¢â¬ September. Ã · Mahmood Iqbal. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å" Are we losing our mindsÃ¢â¬ September. Ã · Globe and Mail. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"The Brain Drain: truth and consequencesÃ¢â¬ Editorial. May 8 Ã · Reguly, Eric. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Dollar union fails a reality checkÃ¢â¬ The Globe and Mail. June 26: B2 Ã · Lewington, Jennifer. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Is Canada really losing its brains?Ã¢â¬ The Globe and Mail. January 4. Ã · Canadian Association of University Teachers www.caut.ca Ã¢â¬Å"There is little evidence that Canada is experiencing a brain drainÃ¢â¬
Posted by Unknown at 11:00 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Florida State, First Impression When I decided to come to Florida State, surprisingly enough it wasn't for the parties. I was actually excited about coming here and studying (don't ask me why). Every other school I looked at I judged them according to how much of a party school they were and what the girls looked like. Then I end up at the #1 party school with a 5:1 ratio of girls to guys. In fact when I came here I wasn't even planning on rushing a Fraternity. When I got here though it was a whole different story. I can remember the week before school started, walking down the hall of my dorm and seeing newspaper clippings on all the doors. After a few days I got curious and decided to read one of them. It was an article about how our University was named the #1 party school for 1999-2000. The last time we had this title was in 1996. Our school has ranked in the top five biggest party schools four times in the last six years, and in 1996 it was ranked #1. For those first one or two weeks of school, everyone was making a big deal about it. I even saw it brought up on MTV News, and Comedy Central. Both shows were ripping on Sandy D'Alemberte about the comments he had tried to make to save the face of his school. His comments about the title were that it was unfair because it was not done in any type of scientifically correct manner. Another one of his arguments was that an interviewer from the Princeton Review had not been to the campus since 1997 so there was no definite way th at they could have information from students about the present social life at the school. The only information the media had to judge this on was feedback they got from student surveys, which are not the most dependable way to get information. So how exactly is this title decided? Does someone go around to different parties and decide it based on how good the parties are? Is it decided by the number of kegs bought in a set amount of time in Tallahassee?
Posted by Unknown at 12:21 PM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
MATH150-1201A-01 Phase 1 DB2 Part 1 and Part 2-Primary Task Response January, 2012 Part 1 Confirmation of MyLabsPlus login I was able to login to MyLabsPlus with my username and password. Part 2 Primary Task Response 1. I went into the learning lab and in the mathematics section I chose the presentation titled Ã¢â¬Å"Basic Algebra Skills-Real numbers & Algebraic Equations, Exponents & Scientific Notation, Radicals & Radical Exponents, and PolynomialsÃ¢â¬ . I chose this presentation because I felt I needed to remember algebraic equations, exponents and polynomials. I have not had algebra for many years so this presentation was a very good refresher. It reminded me about real numbers and algebraic expressions and square roots. It was good to be reminded about the steps you take in algebra to solve an equation such as: 1. Perform operations within the innermost parenthesis first and working outward. 2. Evaluate all exponential expressions. 3. Perform multiplications and divisions as they occur, working from left to right. 4. Perform additions and subtractions as they occur, working from left to right. Overall the presentation was a very good reminder. I am happy I watched this particular presentation. I definitely will benefit by visiting the learning lab math center because I have not had algebra in many years and I will need the extra help to learn. 2. I would explain to the programmers in my new job that a mathematical expression is a phrase or a sentence fragment with a variable that has to be simplified and has no relation symbol. And that a mathematical equation is a sentence that you solve and has a relation symbol and is a statement that two numbers or expressions are equal. A couple of mathematical examples of the difference between an expression and an equation is: 1. Mathematical expression Ã¢â¬â 1. z + 2 ? (7 Ã¢â¬â z) 2. A number is less than five. x < 10. 2. Mathematical equation Ã¢â¬â 1. 6 =6 2. 15 = 2 + 13 A real life example of when someone would use a mathematical expression is when a car is going a certain mph speed and the driver wants to know how many miles he has traveled after so many hours. A real life example of when someone would use a mathematical equation would be to figure their profit or loss during months of business. 3. I would explain to the programmer that the expression means five x five x five = 125 and not 5 x 3. I would explain that 5 is the Ã¢â¬Å"baseÃ¢â¬ and 3 is the Ã¢â¬Å"exponentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"powerÃ¢â¬ . I would show him/her how to calculate it on paper. A real life example where one would use exponents is when one would need to measure square feet, square kilometers or square inches. You might also use it if you need extremely tiny or extremely big quantity results. References Math League Press, (copyright, 1997-2006). Introduction to algebra. Retrieved from http://www. mathleague. com Miller, M. (copyright, 2003 -2012). Where do you need or use exponents in everyday life?. Retrieved from http://www. homeschoolmath. net/teaching/where-need-exponents. php Editorial Board. College algebra. Chapters 1 and 2. Colorado Technical University: Words of Wisdom.
Posted by Unknown at 1:42 PM
Monday, September 16, 2019
Balance is a key design principle that is represented in art in terms of symmetrical and asymmetrical balance
Balance is one of the most crucial principles in artÃ¢â¬â¢s domain. There are two kinds of balance namely the symmetrical and asymmetrical balance. ArtistÃ¢â¬â¢s basically depends on balance when they are trying to create visual weight on their works. Key elements used in order to achieve balance are lines, shapes as well as color. Symmetrical balance often goes with the name formal balance whereas asymmetrical balance is also known as informal balance.In order to know which kind of balance is used by an artist one needs an imaginary line at the center of the artwork. Formal balance is defined as something which depicts similar things from both sides of your imaginary line. In informal balance on the other hand both sides of imaginary lines contain different things and thus the other side seems to be a little heavier as compared to the other side. Informal balance is more psychological in nature in that it is usually felt rather than noticed.Most of Da VinciÃ¢â¬â¢s works contai ns symmetrical balance. Da VinciÃ¢â¬â¢s Proportion of the Human Figure is highly symmetrical in nature. This particular work depicts how a human body could create different shapes such as circle, square, and triangle. In this particular work Da Vinci created balance by creating appropriate proportion which gave birth to balance. The appearance of symmetrical balance in the Proportion of the Human Figure could be attributed to the fact that there had been an approximate symmetry in this particular work.As compared to Leonardo Da Vinci, Deborah Butterfield uses more asymmetrical balnce on her works rather than symmetrical. An example of asymmetrical balance on her work could be found on her Verde. By drawing an imaginary line at the center we could basically see that the one side is heavier than the other and they depict different things as compared to Da VinciÃ¢â¬â¢s Proportion of the Human Figure. In this particular work Butterfield used steel to achieve her desired end.The head of the horse seems to be weightless since it seems like merely a stick protruding as compared to its body which seems to be full of steel and thus appears heavier. This technique allowed her a great example of depicting asymmetrical balance in art. (Ã¢â¬Å"Principles of Design,Ã¢â¬ ; The Artspace Team, 1997) Reference: Principles of Design [Electronic Version] from http://sjc. ceu. edu/departments/art/chp03. pdf. The Artspace Team. (1997). Balance [Electronic Version] from http://www. peonqueen. com/ArtSpace/temp_exhib/art2/bal. html.
Posted by Unknown at 4:01 PM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Many people say that you must have plenty in common with someone in order to be their best friend. However, in the novel Finnie Walsh by Steven Galloway, this is not the case. Finnie and Paul have a few things in common, such as their passion for hockey, but they were (for the most part) complete opposites. Paul's family has a struggle with money throughout the duration of the novel, while Finnie's family is quite wealthy. After Mr. Woodward's accident, Finnie is struggling to escape the guilt; meanwhile, Paul is able to let it go. Finnie is a risk taker along with being very outgoing; but on the contrary, Paul is very timid and takes everything in stride. Paul and Finnie have few things in common; however, that is what makes them such great friends. Everyone in town knows how wealthy the Walsh family is. It is exploited across town through the pulp mill, multiple shops, and their large estate. After the loss of his wife, Mr. Walsh wants to give nothing but the best to his four sons. The downfall to that is Mr. Walsh is so busy and obsessed with the mania of owning things, that he neglects his sons. Finnie dislikes the impression his family leaves on the town and as a result, he humbly takes less and uses his money for important things. Paul's family is not the most financially stable family in town; fortunately, they are a stable family. The Woodwards love and support each other and they are astonished when Finnie be-friends Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"When I met Finnie Walsh, I was too young to realize that we weren't supposed to be friendsÃ¢â¬ (pg. 2). Thanks to Finnie's blessing, Paul's dream of playing hockey eventually becomes a reality. The Woodwards accept Finnie as one of their own, and give him the attention he strives for from his over-achieving father. This is one of the reasons Finnie feels more guilt about Mr. Woodward's accident than Paul. After Paul's father gets in the terrible accident at the Walsh's pulp mill, things are never the same. A feeling of overwhelming guilt consumes Finnie. He feels that if he had been a better goalie, Mr. Woodward would not have been kept awake, resulting in him not falling asleep and work and losing his arm. Finnie forces himself to become a much better goalie after that awful day. To Finnie, hockey was about life and deathÃ¢â¬ ¦ It was a religionÃ¢â¬ (pg. 87). The only downfall to Finnie wanting to be a better goalie is that he becomes obsessed. Mr. Woodward does not resent nor blame Finnie for this tradgedy, unfortunately, Finnie can't lose his guilty conscience. On the other hand, Paul obviously suffers from guilt as well, but the more he matures, the easier it is for him to come to termsthat is not his fault. He decides to join hockey souly for the love of the game and not because of the accident. As much as Paul loves hockey, he does not let it consume his life. Paul is more understanding than Finnie about the accident, and does not allow it to affect him for the rest of his life. Although Paul does not allow the accident to take over his life, he does change because of it. The accident leaves Paul to be a lot more cautious and more worry-some. Despite his cautious personality, he finds himself trying new things and taking risks because of Finnie. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Without Finnie Walsh, I probably wouldn't have had the courage to do half the things I didÃ¢â¬ (pg. 22). Finnie teaches Paul many important life lessons such as not taking things for granted and not going through life unnoticed. Finnie is the youngest of the four Walsh brothers. In attempts to stand out and get some attention, he is very outgoing and risky. He gets sick of following in his brothers footsteps and tries everything to be an individual. He shares the passion of hockey with all his brothers and plays with them even though he gets bludgeoned and critisized. Finnie is idolized by Paul due to his spontanious attitude, courage, and ability to understand everyone. Paul learns many things from Finnie that he uses throughout his life. Having things in common with a best friend is usually important. Finnie Walsh illustrates that occassionally you do not need to be the same as someone to be their best friend. Finnie is a lot more financially stable than Paul; however, his family isn't very functional. The accident haunts Finnie for the rest of his life, while Paul is able to look past it. Finnie is much more outlandish than Paul but Paul learns many things from him. The pair of boys are able to compliment each other perfectly which portrays the scientifical explaination of Ã¢â¬Å"opposites attractÃ¢â¬ . lsh
Posted by Unknown at 6:20 PM
Saturday, September 14, 2019
In 1787 the Articles of Confederation were discarded and the constitution of the United States was created. The articles of confederation created a very weak national government. It gave limited power to government and more power to states. The main organ of the government was a unicameral legislature, in which each state would have one vote. The weakness of the national government was shown by the fact that it could not levy taxes, regulate commerce, or raise an army. Financial problems occurred after the war. National government had large war debts, and by the terms of the Articles of Confederation the national government could not tax. This led for them to print large amounts of paper money in which caused inflation making the money worthless. Many of these problems led to people wanting a stronger central government. In 1787, delegates from the 13 states went to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation. Debates quickly turned away from reforming the Article of Confederation to creating a new national government. Most delegates believed that the central government had to be much stronger with the ability to collect taxes, raise an army, and regulate commerce. However they feared that too much power would fall into the hands of a small group, who would take advantage of it. All of this led to the creation of the Constitution of the United States. It established a stronger federal government, a bicameral legislature, three branches of government, and the division of power between states and the federal government. This help the United States be more stable economically by being able to tax. It also help sm all states have a voice against bigger states. It also instated a more practical system of passing federal laws and making amendments by requiring only a two-thirds majority vote.
Posted by Unknown at 8:39 PM
Friday, September 13, 2019
Causes of the Euro Debt Crisis, Its Impact on International Financial Markets, Including the US, the Eurozone and Asia, and Ways to Resolve It Euro Debt Crisis Causes and salient events leading to the present crisis Euro debt crisis is a financial situation facing the euro zone comprising of 17 member states that use the euro currency where some member countries have worsening sovereign debts borrowed from financial institutions. These countries pose a credit risk if they default on their obligations to the detriment of the monetary union. The case is more severe for member countries like Greece, Italy, Ireland and Spain. Various causes and events have been pointed as leading to the present crisis. For example, according to the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe- ALDE (2008, 11) structural factors that encouraged free market, deregulation of markets, self-regulating market virtues and increased use of new global financial instruments as a major cause. Extensive leverage on a large scale by market participants and enhanced systemic risk due to reduced transparency and contagion effects. The extensive sovereign bor rowing, slow or stagnant economic growth rates by Greece and Italy and lowering of credit rating for Greece from A- to Triple B plus are some of the events that have worsened the crisis (VoA news, 2011). How does the debt crisis in some countries within the Euro zone, such as Greece, Italy etc. impact on the international financial markets, including US, Euro zone and Asia? As indicated on the figure on nytimes.com, the world has become a global village and is much interconnected. Severe debt crisis shocks in Greece and Italy are likely to result into continental contagion because financial institutions holding their sovereign debts have origins and investments in different continents (New York Times, 2011). Both US and Asia heavily trade with Europe and the euro debt crisis is likely to slow down their economic growth and possible down-grading of financial institutions that hold sovereign debt instruments. Due to possibility of high credit risk, interest rates are also likely to go up for both the private and public sector complicating the case further. High sovereign debts among Greece, Italy and Spain could force financial institutions to write off some debts or a bailout plan by able countries like Germany and France. Possible collapse of the euro would result into financial loss for among banks (Yahoo news, 2011). How does the crisis impact the valuation of Euro as against other major currencies in the world? Worsening debt crisis would mean slow economic growth among member states and high credit risk associated with holding the Euro resulting to low demand. This makes the euro to depreciate among the major currencies and players prefer to hold safer currencies like the US dollar and Swiss franc. For example, the euro lost 25% of its value against the U.S. dollar since November 2009 to June 2010 (Kolb, 2011, 389) How, in your opinion, would the crisis be resolved? First, the countries have to embrace better fiscal management to avoid unnecessary national expenditures among. Rationalization of fiscal income, better tax collection and cuts in civil servants salaries among member states to avoid higher heterogeneity should be embraced (Kolb, 2011, 390). Member states should also allow the central European authority to have some control over their sovereign budgets in order to create better fiscal and monetary policies. Currently, the monetary policy is joint while fiscal policy is not creating a mismatch. Allowing the European Central Bank (ECB) to have control over spending taxation would help the union to monitor and influence recovery among debt ridden countries (Yahoo news, 2011). High political goodwill and financial transparency among member states to support each other would help to reduce the global fear of a possible collapse. Initiating policies that boost economic growth in countries where its slow or stagnant would also ease the cris is. Finally, issuance of a single euro bond where member states co-guarantees their debt would lower borrowing as strong economies like Germany and France would reduce default risk. Work Cited ALDE. The international debt crisis: its causes and what to do about it. Liberals and Democrats workshop, February 27th , 2008. www.alde.eu/fileadmin/webdocs/key-docs/finance-book_EN.pdf, 2008 Keller, Greg, Pylas, Pan and Wiseman, Paul. Euro in danger, Europe races for debt solution. Yahoo News. www.news.yahoo.com/euro-danger-europe-races-debt-solution 29th Nov. 2011 Kolb, R.W. Sovereign debt: from safety to default. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2011 Marsh, Bill. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all connected: An overview of the Euro crisis. New York Times www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/10/23/sunday-review/an-overview-of-the-euro-crisis.html 29th Nov. 2011 Melvin, Don. Eurozone ministers meet to build Euro rescue plan. Yahoo News www.news.yahoo.com/eurozone-ministers-meet-build-euro-rescue-plan. 29th Nov. 2011 VoA News. Key dates, events in European debt crisis. VoA News. www.voanews.com/english/news/europe/keydates-events-in-european-debt-crisis.html 29th Nov. 2011
Posted by Unknown at 10:57 PM
Martin Luther King's speech 'I see the promised land' discuss the impact of rhetoric in political communication - Essay Example The art of rhetoric in communication has been a powerful tool used by people to acquire their goal. History has many famous examples where rhetoric has been used in communication by leaders and activists in the struggle to attain success in a political or social cause. The most famous example is of Martin Luther King whose speeches and writings were rhetorical. He is said to have had excellent powers of oration. Through his powers of verbal, oral and written communication, he was successful in attaining civil rights for his people living in America and who were the citizens of America. Thus, he introduced a society free from color and racial differences where each and every citizen was respected and had equal civil rights. Understanding the Correct Meaning of Rhetoric Rhetoric has many definitions. Along with a positive meaning, the term is sometimes also taken in a negative sense in the current era. Shortly and precisely, it is a Ã¢â¬Å"skill in the effective use of speech.Ã¢â¬ ( Merriam Webster). In cases where rhetoric is being used to communicate insincerely with the presence of false exaggeration and promises and there is a lot of diplomacy, the negative meaning becomes prevalent which is the Ã¢â¬Å"insincere and grandiloquent mode of language or speech.Ã¢â¬ (Merriam Webster). Here, the positive and actual meaning of rhetoric is being considered. According to Burton, rhetoric is Ã¢â¬Å"the study of effective speaking and writing, and the art of influencing.Ã¢â¬ (2011). In his short article, Ã¢â¬ËWhat is rhetoric?Ã¢â¬â¢, Burton says that the word has had a variety of meanings. He says that rhetoric focuses on the how of the language, the methods and means of communication rather than the content of what is being communicated. It studies the emotional impact of language and its effectiveness. It breaks communication into content and form. (2011). Relation between Communication Models and Rhetoric McQuail and Windhl (1993) wrote a book titled Ã¢â ¬Å"Communication Models for the Study of Mass CommunicationsÃ¢â¬ in which they gave the main communication ideas or models for the mass communication procedures and vital concepts pertinent throughout graphical and oral concepts and models. Topics that they discuss under the communication models include: 1. Global or International or Cross-border Communications. 2. Procedures of Mass Media and its influence on the Individuals Culture and Society. 3. Premeditated Communication. 4. Audience-Centered Models. 5. New Media and the Information Society. (Holborn Books Review, 2010). Communication models tell us how effective communication should be carried out. Hence, the study of use rhetoric in language can be associated with them. Such models describe how an audience can be effectively conveyed a message so that there can be a social or political (or any other change) through mass correspondence and support. Taking an example of a communication model which is called Ã¢â¬Å"two- way a symmetric modelÃ¢â¬ , this model is also called the persuasion model. In this model, there is two- way communication between the speaker and the public. In this way, the speaker understands the public he is addressing by getting their feedback on issues and then can plan a way to convey his message to receive a positive response keeping in mind what the public wants. (McQuail and Windhl, 1993). Use of behavioral and social sciences helped in the development of this model. Scientific study of human mind and psychology and its application in effective communi
Posted by Unknown at 1:16 AM
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Super man - Essay Example Superman constructs a certain role model of manliness reflecting popular 20th century concepts of masculinity. The most attractive feature in Superman figure is that he can transform from his superhero image to Ã¢â¬Å"the mediocre man of flesh and bloodÃ¢â¬ which serves the mask to his extraordinary abilities. The personality of Superman is split. He has a private life which has nothing to do with his public heroism. In everyday life Superman is Clark Kent, ordinary journalist, clumsy and soft. The contrast between two identities is maximized to emphasise masculinity features. The dual identity of the hero from the launch of Superman series became a formula of masculine image. On one hand the superhero has body which is vividly masculine as well as the confidence and power which suggest of the ideal of man, on the other hand he is soft, powerless, unconfident representing a feminized man. Superhero images have always blended masculinity with muscles. The most obvious external signifier of masculinity has been the male body. Male body images reflect all the conventions related with male superiority. Muscles symbolizing masculine physical strength serve as a code for sexual difference. The muscular body is clear sign of masculine power. (Brown, 1999 p.25) Muscles are associated with masculinity so strongly that women like professional body builders who exhibit Ã¢â¬Ënoticeable muscularityÃ¢â¬â¢ are accused in manliness while men who lack muscular power are criticized for being too feminine. The contrast of two identities of the hero plays an important role in shaping masculinity image. That makes Superman a masculine ideal of 20th century. Superman possesses exceptional qualities like flying, gliding on air currents, seeing through walls. He gets more and more powers equalling to God. Besides, he is a defender of truth with exceptional feeling of justice and handsome looks. Clark
Posted by Unknown at 3:35 AM
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Argument final - Research Paper Example ilable medical remedies, and so many patients suffering from these diseases are made to endure severe and chronic pain, vomiting, difficulty in breathing, and other similar discomforts. They are often also made to endure such symptoms for days and even months before they eventually die. In the interim, they often reach the point of wanting to end their suffering and pain by ending their life. Lacking the strength and the means to end it, these patients turn to their physicians to assist them in ending their life. But legalizing physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is a dangerous step which is very much against the basic principles of the medical practice. With such a premise, this paper shall discuss and support the thesis that physician-assisted suicide should not be made legal. An important consideration in the assisted suicide discussion is the fact that committing it is against the basic principle of non-maleficence or of not doing any harm to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s patient. The Hippocratic Oath which serves as the basic ethical mandate of the medical practice expressly prohibits physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia (Finlay, 2005). This oath declares that a physician should not Ã¢â¬Å"administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will [the physician] suggest such a courseÃ¢â¬ (as cited by Demy and Stewart, 1998, p. 249). In the time of Hippocrates, assisted suicide and euthanasia were very much against the principles of medicine. In the current context however, assisted suicide and euthanasia are ideas which are new and different from the concepts of medicine and care (Walker, 2001). Those who support physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia also have different ideas on what it is to be a physician and what the moral boundaries of the practice a re. Ã¢â¬Å"It is also telling that the current public interest in PAS comes at a time when the palliative powers of American medicine are greater than they have ever been in the pastÃ¢â¬ (Walker, 2001, p. 27). All in all,
Posted by Unknown at 5:54 AM
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Front-end and back-end processes of office automation - Essay Example The back-end system, on the other hand, serves as the back-up system. The main tasks include organization, administration and maintenance of the data pooled in the system from the front-end. Another indispensable task is analysis of data mainly through the creation of programs that can automatically complete the synthesis of information fundamental to the operation. Thus, the back-end system commonly involves the concluding stage of data processing ("Back-end," 2005; Goldfield, 1987). The typical system that is being utilized is that which involves a network of hardware stations. The main job of the front end of the system is to input the raw data regarding the main task of the establishment. The back-end system, on the other hand, concludes and analyzes the processes involved in the system and produced output for the business. The utilization of the system of automation that employs workflow database technology can perform important advantages in any business establishment. One of the benefits of such system is that can adopt on the basis of the scale of the institution or the business. Thus, the applicability ranges from small business to a large scale and complex operations.
Posted by Unknown at 8:13 AM
Monday, September 9, 2019
International relations - Essay Example This can be detrimental if there no other stronger economies to watch over or counter the influence of the economically superior country. At least, there should be countries with better GDP that can form a stronger coalition to resist the aggressive actions of the former. From the Goldstein text, United States appears to be one of the countries with strongest GDP of up to 14,000. U.S. has been seen in so many occasions undertaking military interventions in war-torn regions with the purpose of maintaining peace. Its superiority is therefore not in question but it aggressiveness and interest in these interventions begs some stream of answers. With such strong economy and wealth, it can use its influence to advance selfish interests that it may harbor (Goldstein, Whitworth, and Pevehouse 475). This can be so aggressive to the extent of undermining the sovereignty of other territorial boundaries. It may become even more intolerant to other small economies that questions its advancements, or may identify viable resources in other territorial regions that it may want to benefit from. This aggressiveness may not be possible to counter if the other countries are so weak economically that they cannot form a coalition to deal with the aggressive country. In this case, three countries may form a coalition that may be able to stop counter the actions of the United States in case it decides to go aggressive and wreak havoc on other economies or countries since they cannot match its s0uperiority. Among the countries capable of countering such a wave include China; with GDP of 9,500, Japan with GDP of 4, 400 and Germany with GDP of 3000. When combined their coalition can wield a combined GDP of 16, 900 capable of toppling the might of U.S in case it goes intolerably aggressive. U.S has been known for its superiority in advancing the aims of maintaining the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s stability though. However, its interest may surpass that of the common global good. The
Posted by Unknown at 10:33 AM
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Discussion about influences has television had in our society - Essay Example Television has both good influences and bad influences on society. The following essay will talk about these in detail. There is no doubt that Television has many good influences. Firstly, Television is an audio/visual medium making it easy for the audience to follow programs. It uses graphics, sound recording and film technology to bring lively and interesting material to the enjoyment of the audience. Many people when they come back from office or school switch on the Television and relax themselves. More importantly, it also provides news bulletins and science programs for gaining knowledge. For school-going children it offers sport programming like live baseball telecast, etc. All this are very useful and perform an important social role. In fact, Television has become such an important part of everyday life that we cannot imagine how life will be without Television. (Bignell, 2004) Television has been used for the purpose of education as well. For example, class-rooms can show s tudents interesting movies that are part of the curriculum. Class-room can also show recorded lectures and science documentaries. With respect to society, Television brings awareness about global issues so that all of us can act together. One example of this is global warming, about which information is provided in Television. With this we can act together and save the planet. Television also has plenty of advertisements. While some ads can be boring, some others provide information about products, which we can use when we go shopping. (Noll, 2011) Television not only performs a social role but also a family role. It brings all members of family together during evenings. In fact, it has become part of family routine at dinner time. Television gives news about weather conditions. We can take precautions against rain and storm by watching weather news. Also, Television is used these days in closed-circuit cameras for security reasons. On the negative side too, there are many points. F irst, watching Television for long time is bad for the eyes. Television can distract students from focussing on studies. It can make young children lazy and keep them away from books and sports. Parents are especially worried that Television has bad effect on society as it shows violence and crime. Young people can get the wrong idea about life watching such programs. For example, a young person watching use of guns on Television might later kill someone with a gun in real life. So it is very dangerous in cases like this. It also gives wrong idea about how to treat women, etc. In other words, Television can show women in stereotype fashion. Hence, not everything about Television is good. (Freedman, 2002) Television can cause problems in society by showing racial discrimination, etc. For example, if black people are not shown in programs, one gets the impression that they are not important people. Television news can also be flawed. For example, we cannot believe everything the news anchor says as truth. Sometimes they give inaccurate information to deceive the viewer. So one has to be careful about the truthfulness of news. Also, the information given in advertisements can be misleading. Many companies are just trying to make quick money and will show any false claims to sell products. So we have to be careful while watching Television. (Bignell, 2004) Finally, Television has many limitations which make it not useful for in-depth analysis. That is, Television can never replace the
Posted by Unknown at 12:53 PM
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Use a variety of accounting theories to respond to Adams (2002) statement - Essay Example The corporations need to reform their reporting systems to include all aspects of operation in this era when the global economy is undergoing widespread reforms. The fundamental aim of this paper is analyzing the statement by AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) based on the theories of corporate social responsibility. According to the political theory, organisations have power to analyse the environment and participate in corporate social responsibility. Power is the ability to influence and control behaviour of a certain group of people. Thus, organisations have the political power to influence the aspects of social and environmental concern. Rendtorff (2009) classifies the political theory into two categories: these are corporate citizenship and corporate constitutionalism. Corporate citizenship is founded on the need of firms performing their responsibility to the environment. Corporations are referred to as legal persons (Deegan & Rankin, 1996); hence, they are considered independent individuals who ought to be responsible of their actions on the environment. Demonstrating of corporate accountability is achieved by making publications and reports discussing and analysing their contributions to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing. Failure to report to the community leads to negative public view a nd lack of credibility of an organisation. The primary aim of constitutions in firms is to create and entrench power. A corporate constitution, thus, governs choices incorporated in the state law and the certificate of incorporation. According to Mahoney, Thorne, Cecil and LaGore (2013), the decision to assign powers to directors over decisions is the choice of governance structures. If directors fail to effectively and responsibly use the powers endowed to them, the community can take away the power and give it to responsible parties (Orlitzky & Swanson, 2008). The community can take away the power by cutting partnerships with them, legal actions, avoiding buying
Posted by Unknown at 3:13 PM
Friday, September 6, 2019
Different forms of child abuse Essay Child abuse is a common term for four types of child maltreatment: sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Children are usually victims of more than one type of abuse. They could be both sexually and emotionally abused or they could also be physically abused and neglected. In some severe cases, children may suffer from more than two forms of abuse. Child abuse was once viewed as a minor social problem that only affected a handful of U. S. children. In recent years the media and law enforcement has paid close attention to the issue. More than 1,000 children died from abuse in 1996, in the U.S. (1). Approximately 231 children are abused each day. That is 10 children every hour, and one child every six minutes. Each day in the United States, more than three children die as a result of child abuse, in the home. More children, age four and younger, die from child abuse and neglect than any other single, leading cause of death for infants and young children (1). The abusers can be family members, parents, caretakers such as babysitters and teachers, and strangers. Abuse occurs among all ethnic, social, and income groups. Most parents dont hurt or neglect their children intentionally. Many were themselves abused or neglected. Usually the cases that are reported involve poor families with little education. Also common in reports are young mothers, single-parent families, and parental drug or alcohol abuse. The frequency of child abuse is difficult to estimate, due to so many cases going unreported. There are signs, symptoms, and causes to all four types of child abuse. When you have a concern for a childs well-being, the signs or symptoms may help guide you in the process of reporting. Although, these signs, mentioned later, dont necessarily indicate that a child is being abused. A professional, who would be able to determine the abuse, should investigate the possibility. Determining the exact cause of child abuse is almost impossible. In general,Ã the factors that influence whether abuse will happen is grouped into two categories- internal and external. Lack of social support, economic hardship, and chemical dependency are a few external factors. Some internal factors are: biological, emotional, and psychological. Some factors are as common as low intelligence and range to, as rare as, a severe personality disorder such as Schizophrenia. Isolation is a factor contributing to abuse. When families have difficulties, perhaps from unemployment or other social problems, they may respond in a number of ways. The families that respond by isolating themselves, by withdrawing themselves from neighbors and friends, are the most likely to be abusive. Charles F. Johnson defines sexual abuse as any activity with a child, before the age of legal consent, that is for the sexual gratification of an adult or a significantly older child. Sexual abuse involves fondling, penetration, persuading a child to expose his or her sexual organs, and allowing a child to view pornography. In most of the reported cases the child knew the abuser, and one in five of the abusers were under age themselves. 12% of the confirmed cases reported in 1996 involved sexual abuse. An estimated 10-15% of males and 20-25% of females reported they were sexually abused by age 18 (2). Most sexually abused children never come to the attention of the authorities. There may be no physical signs of harm, but there is always the intense shame, and secrecy is often maintained, even by the adults who know of the abuse, for fear of destroying a family. There is evidence emerging that as many as one in three incidents of child sexual abuse are not remembered by adults who experience them, and that the younger the child was at the time of the abuse, and the closer the relationship to the abuser, the more likely one is not to remember, claims Linda Williams. Convicted rape and sexual assault offenders serving time in State prisonsÃ report that two-thirds of their victims were under the age 18, and 58% of those (nearly 4 in 10 imprisoned violent sex offenders) said their victims were aged 12 or younger. In 90% of the rapes of children less than 12 years old, the child knew the offender. Sixty percent took place in the victims home or at the home of a friend, neighbor, or relative. Two-thirds of sex offenders in state prisons victimized a child. For offenders imprisoned for violent crimes against victims younger than 18 (1994), 15% were convicted of forcible rape, 57% were convicted of other types of sexual assault (lewd acts of forcible sodomy, statutory rape, etc.), about thirty percent reported attacks on more than one child, and more than half the victims were younger than 12. Out of 277 inmate interviews of all prisoners convicted of rape or sexual assault, two-thirds victimized children. Three out of four child victims were female, prisoners convicted of attacking children were mostly male, 97%, and about 22% of the child sex offenders reported having been sexually abused themselves during childhood. Half of the women raped were younger than 18 and 20% were victimized by their father (3). Children often fail to report because of the fear that disclosure will bring consequences even worse than being victimized again. The victim may fear consequences from the family or feel guilty for consequences to the perpetrator. Victims may also have a feeling that something is wrong with me, and that the abused is their fault. The impact of child sexual abuse is tremendous. It is estimated that there are 60 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse in America, today. Approximately 31% of women in prison state they have been abused as children and about 95% of teenage prostitutes have been sexually abused. Young girls who are forced to have sex are three times more likely to develop psychiatric disorders or abuse alcohol and drugs in adulthood, than girls who are not sexually abused (4). There are two different types of indicators of sexual abuse, physical indicators and behavioral indicators. Some of the physical indicators are: 1)Torn, stained or bloody underclothes. 2)Frequent, unexplained sore throats, yeast or urinary infections. 3) Bruises or bleeding from external genitalia, vagina, or anal region. 4) Sexual transmitted disease. 5) Pregnancy. Some of the behavioral indicators are: 1)The victims disclosure of sexual abuse. 2)Disturbed sleeping pattern. 3)Difficulty in walking or sitting. 4)Avoidance of undressing or wearing extra layers of clothes. 5)Sudden decline in school performance. The two prerequisites for this form of maltreatment include sexual arousal to children and the willingness to act on this arousal. Factors that may contribute to the willingness include alcohol or drug abuse, poor impulse control, and a belief that the sexual behaviors are acceptable and not harmful to the child. The chances of abuse are higher if the child is developmentally handicapped or vulnerable in some other way. Often there is no physical evidence of sexual abuse for a doctor to find. In fact, physical examinations of children in cases suspected sexual abuse supply grounds for further suspicion only 15-20% of the time (4). Physical abuse is the nonaccidental infliction of physical injury to a child, such as cut, bruises, welts, and broken bones. The abuser is usually a family member or other caretaker, and is more likely to be male. In 1996,Ã 24% of the confirmed cases of U.S. child abuse involved physical abuse (4). A rare form of physical abuse is Munchausen syndrome by proxy, in which a caretaker, most often the mother, seeks attention by making the child sick or appear to be sick. Skulls and other bone fractures are often seen in young abused children, and in fact head injuries are the leading cause of death in abused children. A few physical indicators of physical abuse are: 1)Unexplained welts or bruises on the face, upper arms, throat, thighs or lower back in unusual patterns or shapes which suggest use of an instrument (electric cord, belt buckle) on an infant in various stages of healing that are seen after absences, weekends, or vacations. 2)Rope burns. 3)Bald patches. 4)Refusal to undress for gym. Some of the behavioral indicators of physical abuse are: 1)Behavioral extremes- withdrawal, aggression, depression. 2)Unbelievable or inconsistent explanation for the injury. 3)Fear of physical contact-shrinking back if touched. 4)Fear of medical help or examination. The usual physical abuse scenario involves a parent who loses control and lashes out at a child. The trigger could be a dirty diaper or crying. Unlike nonabusive parent, who may become upset or angry with their children fromÃ time to time but are genuinely loving, abusive parents tend to harbor deep-rooted negative feelings toward their children. Emotional abuse, also known as psychological abuse, according to Richard D. Krugman, has been defined as the rejection, ignoring, criticizing, isolation, or terrorizing or children, all of which have the effect of eroding their self-esteem. Emotional abuse usually expresses itself in verbal attacks involving rejection, belittlement, humiliation, and so forth. Emotional abuse also includes bizarre forms of punishment, such as confinement of a child in a dark closet. Often psychological abuse accompanies other types of abuse and is difficult to prove. It is rarely reported and accounted for only 6% of the confirmed 1996 cases (3). A few physical indicators of emotional abuse are: 1)Eating disorders- obesity or anorexia. 2)Nervous disorders- rashes, facial tics, hives, etc. 3)Speech disorders- stuttering, stammering, etc. 4)Flat or bald spots on head (infants). A few behavioral indicators of psychological abuse are: 1)Age inappropriate behaviors- bedwetting, soiling, etc. 2)Habit disorders- biting, rocking, etc. 3)Cruel behavior- seeming to get pleasure from hurting another child, adult, or animal. 4)Overreaction to mistakes. Emotional abuse can happen in many different settings: at school, at home, on sports teams, and so on. The forth and final forms of child abuse is neglect. Neglect is the failure to satisfy a childs basic needs and can assume many forms. Emotional neglect is the failure to satisfy a childs normal emotional needs or behavior that damages a childs normal psychological and emotional development, physical neglect is the failure to provide adequate food, shelter, clothing, or supervision, and educational neglect includes the allowance of chronic truancy, failure to enroll a child of mandatory school age in school, and failure to attend to a special educational need. Failing to see that a child receives proper schooling or medical care is also considered neglect. In 1996, neglect was confirmed in over half of the abuse cases (3). Some physical indicators of neglect include: 1)Poor hygiene- lice, diaper rash, body odor, etc. 2)Lack of immunizations. 3)Untreated injury or illness. 4)Poor state of clothing. A few behavioral indicators of neglect include: 1)Chronic hunger or tiredness. 2)Assuming adult responsibilities. 3)Unusual school attendance. 4)No social relationships. Many cases of neglect occur because the parent experiences strong negative feelings toward the child. At other times, the parent may truly care for the child, but lack the ability to adequately provide for the childs needs due to being handicapped by drug abuse, depression, mental retardation, or other problems. As a result, their physical, emotional, social, and mental development is hindered. Young children remain at high risk for loss of life. Between 1995 and 1997, 78% of these children were less than five years of age at the time of their death, while 38% were under one year of age. As for cause of death, 44% of deaths resulted from neglect, 51% from physical abuse, and 5% from a combination of neglectful and physically abusive parenting. Approximately 41% of these deaths occurred to children known to child protective service agencies as current or prior clients (5). Abuse investigators are often a group effort involving medical personnel, police officers, social workers, and others. Careful questioning of the parents is crucial, as is interviewing the child. The investigators must ensure, however, that their questioning does not further traumatize the child. A physical examination for signs of abuse or neglect is, always necessary, and may also include blood tests, x-rays, and other procedures. If the child has sisters or brothers, the authorities must determine whether they have been abused as well. Signs of physical abuse are discovered in about 20% of the sisters and brothers of abused children (4). Child abuse can have lifelong consequences. Research shows that abused children and adolescents are more likely, for instance, suffer emotional problems, do poorly in school, abuse drugs and alcohol, and attempt suicide. As adults they have often have trouble establishing intimate relationships. Notification of the appropriate authorities, treatment of the childsÃ injuries, and protecting the child from further harm are the immediate priorities in child abuse! Sources All Figures Based Upon The Following: 1.A Nations Shame: Fatal Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States. 2.Child Maltreatment 1998: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. 3.http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats.htm 4.http://www.prevent-abuse-now.com/stats2.htm 5.Wang, C.T. Daro, D. (1998). Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The results of the 1997 Annual Fifty State Survey.
Posted by Unknown at 5:33 PM
Thursday, September 5, 2019
How Does Pdf Manage Bitmap Images Information Technology Essay Primary storage is the main area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access, Primary memory storages are also temporary, were as secondary storage is permanent. For example RAM (Random Access Memory) is primary storage so when the computer is switched off or restarted the data that is being stored is wiped from the memory. Retrieved from the Computer Hope Web site: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/p/primstor.htm. Secondary storage on the other hand has data written to it so the data is permanently stored there. Primary storage is closer to the CPU and is mostly integrated onto the motherboard there it is faster when performing tasks, compared to secondary which is connected through cables. Primary storage is the cache and random access memory is as it is part of the central processing unit, this is the only memory that is directly accessible to the central processing unit. Instructions are stored in the primary storage in which the CPU continuously reads and executes wh en required. Any data that is actively operated on is also stored in the primary storage in a uniform manner. Secondary storage differs from primary storage as it is not directly accessible by the CPU. Secondary storage is the hard drive of a computer in which all the information that needs to be saved is stored there. Retrieved from the Computer Hope Web site: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/secostor.htm. In the architecture of computer hardware, systems software networking, 4th edition, 2010 there are 2 definitions of what virtualization is. These are; existing or resulting in essence or effect though not in actual fact, form or name and created, simulated, or carried on by means of a computer or computer network. (Englander, I. (2010). The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software Networking. Pg 20.) These two explanations mean that virtualization is when you create something on a computer and simulate it. An example of this is virtual pc which is used on windows 7, this allows a person to simulate running an operating system and it will behave exactly as it would if it was a computers own operating system. This virtualization allows people to test programs on virtual versions of operating systems but within another operating system, this allows people to test programs to be able to make sure that their current programs are compatible. Another example of this would also be when using servers. Virtualization allows a server to make virtual servers that run independently so there could be 20 servers but they are all virtual therefore they would only have to be on one or two real servers. This is used to cut costs and to make it easier to manage a server as it is entirely virtual therefore it does not cost anything to run can reach at its potential efficiency. Englander, I. (2010). The Architecture of Computer Hardware, Systems Software Networking (4th ed.).** London, United Kingdom: London University Press.** The inputs to the home cinema system would be the cables that power the system. An input to the television and home cinema system would be the DVD player as that is sending data to the television to show the film on the DVD. Other inputs in the system would be the input from the reliever to the television. This is used so the television receives a signal to provide a picture on the television. The remote also provides and output into which the DVD player and TV would receive an input from the remote to control the components. The user can then decide what they want to happen on the DVD player and the TV for example what channel is on the television or the volume or navigating through a menu on the DVD player. The plug socket is an output which it inputs power to the TV and cinema system. The Television itself would be an output as it is providing the visual part of the system, whilst the speaker components are outputs as they provide the audio. Remote Cloud computing is the method of which data and applications are stored and accessed over the World Wide Web. Cloud Computing Defined. (2010). Cloud Computing Defined. Retrieved from the Cloud Computing Defined site: http://www.cloudcomputingdefined.com/. The idea behind cloud computing is that your data is stored and backed up on a computer somewhere in the world that can be accessed at any time. But you will not know where your data is being stored. This means that the users are unaware and do not know of any of the details of the applications use, for example where the hardware that is being used to store it is located. A PDF is treated as a file format so with the right software any person can look at the file. PDF also contains its own bitmap formats, object image formats and text formats which are all optimized for creating and presenting pages quickly. So because a PDF has its own formats so when a program opens it will display the file in the way that any monitor can view it, including printers as a PDF is a standard therefore each printer and operating system must be accustomed to that standard therefore allowing it to be seen consistently. Describe the format for storing, laying out, and managing the objects on a page. Explain the advantages to the use of this format over other formats, such as that used by HTML. The advantage of using PDF format over other formats such as HTML for storing, laying out and managing objects on a page would be that there are many algorithms which are used for compression which enable a faster and smoother file transfer, Therefore the application is much more flexible The advantage of using the PDF format over other formats for storing, laying out and managing objects on a page would be that they have many algorithms for compression which enables smooth file transfer. The application therefore is more flexible. Due to the compression techniques it is also more portable due to the smaller sizes that PDFs can have compared with something like HTML. Jenny Hamper. (2010). Difference Between PDF Vs HTML Retrieved from ezinearticles site: http://ezinearticles.com/?Difference-Between-PDF-Vs-HTMLid=3972193 A font in PDF is a description of a digital typeface which is a set of one or more fonts,. These descriptions can describe the characteristics of a typeface, but can also include an embedded font file. Font files that are embedded are based on commonly used digital font formats. A PDF will use character codes that are within text strings to map the current font using an encoding. There are predefined encodings that exist in a PDF which are universal and will work on any platform. A PDF can specify a predefined encoding to use which can be the fonts built in encoding. Any file which contains fonts are also collected when a document is saved as a PDF so all of the available fonts the user has are stored on a PDF which makes it easy for a PDF to show that particular font or show a font that is in the same family so there is some resemblance to the original font. How does PDF manage bitmap images? Object images? Describe at least three major limitations that PDF places on the end-user of a PDF document. One major limitation of PDF is that it cannot be edited once a file has been converted into a PDF then it cannot be edited as it is an image of a document. What are the criteria that define a Von Neumann architecture? How does the example of entering and adding two numbers illustrate each of the criteria? If the memory register for a computer is 32 bits wide then this computer can support 4gb of memory. This is because the memory can access 32 locations and each location has either a 0 or a 1 stored meaning there are 2 states at which the 32 bits can be accessed. Therefore 232 = (4 294 967 296) meaning that there are 4.3GB of memory available as there are that many different combinations. This means that a system with a 32 bit wide system can only have a maximum of 4GB as there is only a maximum of 4 294 967 296 different memory combinations. Volatile memory is computer memory that can only maintain memory if it is being powered by the computer. Non-volatile memory is the opposite of volatile memory in which it is computer memory that can retain information when it is not being powered. RAM would be an example of volatile memory because when a computer is turned off any information that hasnt been saved and is on the RAM is deleted. A hard drive (ROM) is non-volatile memory because when there is no power to the ROM the data that is being stored is kept even when there is no power as the data is written onto the OM so it is kept. Draw a flow diagram that shows step by step the process for converting a mixed number in a base other than 10 to decimal. Submission Deadline for submission is Thursday 16th December 2010 before 1200 noon. Submit via the Assessment Submission facility of IBIS. The title that you give to the submission should be CO4023 followed by your student id (If you need to resubmit, append A, B, etc. to the submission title make clear which is the latest version).
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