Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Adolph Hitler Life, Ideology, Rise - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2175 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Adolf Hitler Essay Did you like this example? When people hear Adolf Hitler, they think of him as a terrible and murderous man, but what provoked Hitler to be this way? Hitler believed Germans were to be the masters of the world, and he would do whatever it took to make it so (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Adolf Hitler was an extremely brilliant and persuasive man who knew how to get what he wanted. Although, in the beginning, Adolf just wanted to be an artist, he used those traits to become something much, much more. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Adolph Hitler: Life, Ideology, Rise" essay for you Create order The choices Adolf made throughout his lifetime left a massive scar on the world, and they are things the world will never forget. While Hitlers adult years are when he did the most damage, his early life is what sparked Hitler to become the terrible man everyone remembers. Throughout Adolf Hitlers childhood he experienced many incredible struggles, especially with the lack of a fatherly role model; this caused him to think hate was the answer, which then lead to his prejudicial and horrific treatment of Jewish people during World War II. Adolfs parents were not present for much of his life, but the time they were around impacted Hitler tremendously. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau, Austria. His parents are Alois and Klara Hitler. Hitlers father, Alois Hitler was an Austria Customs Service official; he did not make a lot of money but enough to support his family. Adolf never received many of the things he asked his parents for, due to the lack of money (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Before Alois was married to Adolfs mother, Klara, he was married to two other women all within ten years. This shows that he was not great at treating his wife, or people in general with respect and he could not stay committed, which had a negative influence on Adolf and made him immune to instability (Rosenberg 1). Alois finally found his third and final wife named Klara. She was actually his housekeeper, but they fell in love and had six children together. Out of the six kids, Adolf was the fourth; his three older siblings and Edmund died before the age of two of the same disease. Adolf and Paula, his youngest sibling, were the only two children out of the six that grew into adulthood (Rosenberg 1). Because of the loss of so many children, Hitler never received much attention from his mother. She spent most of her time grieving from the death of her three older children and Edmund. She would often pray the rosary to them and spend days alone in her room (Darby 1). Even though Adolf was not raised in the best conditions, he was academically very smart in school, and most of the subjects came naturally to him, although he only put effort into the few classes that seemed interesting to him. He was never one to spend extra time on anything other than what he was curious about (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). From a young age Adolf really liked art, it was one of the only classes in school that really caught his attention and that he was willing to put effort into. He was always a creative kid and wanted to pursue his dreams of becoming an artist when he was older. Often times he would sit in his room and paint or sketch anything that came to mind. Unfortunately, his father was never fond of Adolf doing art and did not support him (Hitler, Adolf 1). Adolfs mind was always filled with terrible and hateful things. From a young age, Adolfs father told him and convinced him that being German made them better than others and that Germany was better than anywhere else in general. This is called nationalism which is loyalty and devotion to a nation, especially in a sense of nation consciousness (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Hitler also believed the biggest threat to the Germans, and him personally, were the Jewish people and blamed them for almost everything (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Shockingly one of Hitlers closest childhood friends was Jewish, but he eventually cut off that friendship, since his father told him to hate all Jewish people (Darby 1). His father was very controlling and did not treat Adolf with respect, causing him to rebel against his father, and anyone who tried to control him (Hitler, Adolf 1). Adolfs father died in 1903 and Adolf convinced his mother to allow him to drop out of school. During this time he also found a liking for operas and music (Hitler, Adolf 1). A couple years later Hitlers mother, Klara became very sick and was in the hospital. While Klara was there some of her nurses were Jewish and were helping Klara stay healthy. Although these Jewish nurses were saving his mother, Adolf still did not like them (Darby 1). Klara later died in 1907, so Adolf decided to move to Vienna (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Moving to Vienna by himself was an ambitious new start for Adolf. Hitler used his orphan money to move to Vienna in 1907. While Hitler was in Vienna, he attempted to enter the Academy of Fine Arts, wanting to pursue his dream of becoming an artist. This did not quite work out as he expected, and he was denied (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Even though he was not accepted, Hitler was still dedicated to art and wanted to try again a couple months later. He went again to the Academy of Fine Arts and decided to try again, yet once again failed. Adolf did not have anywhere to go, so he started moving from place to place in Vienna, Austria, trying to make money any way he could (Hitler, Adolf 1). Surprisingly, Hitler did not have much luck in his early years. He attempted to join the army before World War I but was not physically ready for it. Although, in August 1914, at the beginning of WWI, he ended up joining the army, not because he was ready, but because Germany needed more soldiers. Adolf was fighting in France for four years, and he said being in war was, the greatest and most unforgettable time (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). WWI ended in 1918 with Germany surrendering and Adolf, as well as other people, was not happy with the way the war ended. Hitler decided to believe Germany lost because of the socialists, liberals, and Jews in the country (Hitler, Adolf 1). After WWI Hitler joined a nationalist group in Munich, called the National Socialist German Workers Party. Or as we know it the Nazi Party (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Towards the beginning of the Nazi Party Hitler was supposed to talk to the German soldiers about loyalty. Hitler growing up as he did, instead used this oppo rtunity to talk badly about liberals (Hitler, Adolf 1). Hitler eventually became the leader of this party in 1921. While Hitler was leader, he turned this party into a military organization, and about two years later ruled over these people like a dictator (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). Being in the Nazi party made Hitler feel very ambitious and invisible with his upcoming actions. On November 8-9, 1923 Hitler decided to make an attempt to overthrow the Berlin government, which is known as the Beer Hall Putsch (Nazi Germany 1). Hitler led his Nazi soldiers into a beer hall where government officials were attending a meeting and attempted a Putsch, which is trying to get rid of the government. This was Hitlers idea of how to pressure the conservative-nationalist Bavarian government to team up with him against March on Berlin. His attempt failed and Hitler was sentenced to prison for five years, but his imprisonment only lasted nine months (Adolf Hitler Encyclopedia 1). While behind bars Hitler wrote a book called Mein Kampf, meaning My Struggle in English (Nazi Germany 1). In his book, Hitler talked about how during the war he became blind by a poisonous gas, and he had a vision in his mind where he was a hero, everyone loved him, and he leads Germany to be great (H itler, Adolf 1). Although Hitler was locked away in prison, after being released he became very powerful. As soon as Hitler was released from prison, he went back to the Nazis and tried to get his Nazi party elected to the head office. People were not fond of the party at first, but after the stock market crash in 1929, people started listening to him. Everyone became so stressed out because of the deteriorating economy and high unemployment rates that they looked to Hitler for help; they began to listen and hear what he had to say (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). This leads the Nazi Party to become the second most popular political party in 1930. The economy of Germany became so tremendously appalling that the president felt he was unable to control the government, and the people believed they needed a strong leader. Hitler saw this as an opportunity to take his chance at being in complete and total power (Nazi Germany 1). In January 1933 Hitler was named the head minister of Germany (Adolf Hitler UXL 1). World War II in Germany was intense as they went through a series of battles with different countries. When the stock market crashed in the United States in 1929, it actually caused a depression all across the globe and not just in the United States. This resulted in 33% of the labor force in Germany unemployed and broke (Nazi Germany 1). For Germany, World War II started on September 1, 1939, after Poland tried to invade Germany and did not get far with that. Hitler decided to start killing more Jewish and Polish people (Adolf Hitler Encyclopedia 1). Adolfs goal of World War II would lead to him having complete control over the majority of Eurasia (Adolf Hitler Encyclopedia 1). Hitlers army advanced into the war and Denmark surrendered in 1940. His next big task was Germanys Operation Barbarossa against Russia, which took place on June 22, 1941. The goal of this was to construct the new order of German racial domination (Adolf Hitler Encyclopedia 1). This Operation Barbarossa fail ed due to the insane winter weather in Russia and caused a setback to Germany during the war. While the fighting was going on, hundreds of people were also being tortured to death in different parts of Germany. This is known as the Holocaust, which was entirely conducted by Adolf Hitler. Hitler called Jews, homosexuals and people with physical or mental disorders undesirables and was sent to concentration camps because he did not think they had a purpose in life (Concentration Camps 1). A concentration camp is a type of internment center often used to house political prisoners or members of ethnic minority groups, usually during times of war (Concentration Camps 1). These camps are what Hitler called his Final Solution which was to get rid of the Jewish religion. Concentration Camps operated by the Nazis were the most appalling. The prisoners, or Jews, in this case, were taken out of their homes and sent to the camps in freight cars which were extremely overcrowded. Most of the prisoners died before they arrived at the camp due to weather exposure or hypothermia in the freigh t cars. As soon as the prisoners arrived at the camp they had the choice to work for the Nazis to get food, or they could starve to death. If they chose to work, they would most likely be worked to death because of the lack of proper nutrition to keep them healthy. Anyone who came into the camps and was unable to work like the elderly, babies/children and injured people would most likely be killed on the spot (Concentration Camps 1). These camps became so brutal that concentration camp, was not a proper term for them. They were later renamed death camps, which were made to murder Jews. The most well-known death camp is called Auschwitz (Concentration Camps 1). The death camps were strictly for Jews because of how much Hitler disliked them. Hitler thought they were, an evil race working to take over the world. For 12 years Hitler was in power, taking over Germany and persecuting Jews, although Hitler decided to commit suicide on April 30, 1945. Hitler died only a little over a month before WWII ended in Germany. (Benson, Sonia 1). By the time WWII was over about 90 percent of the Jewish population in Germany had died (Concentration Camps 1). Adolf Hitlers childhood was not very happy due to the lack of parental guidance and family conflicts; he decided to choose hate and did many horrendous things because of it. From a young age, his parents were not there for him and he had to do the majority of things on his own. The one thing he did learn from his father, was how to hate; he learned to blame the Jewish people for everything. After his parents passed away he struggled to find a sense of belonging, which caused him to beg for attention. His great characteristic of insanity leads to the creation of his Nazi Party. This also leads to the sickening treatment of the Jewish people during World War II. Overall his life was depressing and is what lead him to be the awful man we remember today, Adolf Hitler.

Monday, December 23, 2019

Differences Between Cuneiform And Cuneiform - 1229 Words

1. Discuss the difference between cuneiform, hieroglyphics and runes. As discussed in the Encyclopaedia Britannica article Cuneiform, cuneiform, a system of writing utilized during the ancient Middle East period, using a slanted edge of a stylus (writing instrument) to press into soft clay (2016). As the Encyclopaedia Britannica article Hieroglyphic Writing states, Hieroglyphics, a form of writing used by Egyptians carved on temple walls and public monuments in the form of pictures, symbols, or signs (2016). Runes, an alphabet with 24-33 letters carved on stones, as stated by Encyclopaedia Britannica article Runic Alphabet (2016). 2. What is The Book of the Dead? What journey does the soul make? How are its deeds weighed? As the Wikipedia article The Book of the Dead mentions, The Book of the Dead consists of a loose collection of funerary text from Ancient Egypt containing magic spells supposed to aid the deceased in his journey to the afterlife (2016). The Egyptians maintained the soul makes a journey through the underworld, called Duat, into the afterlife (2016). The souls weighed on a pair of scales against Maat, the goddess of truth and justice, often represented by a feather (2016). If out of balance with Maat, the devourer, Ammit, ate the heart. If the scales balanced with Maat, the deceased, then vindicated, had secured his afterlife (2016). 3. What is the significance of â€Å"The Mother Goddess† or â€Å"The Great Mother?† How does the cult of the goddess and otherShow MoreRelatedCuneiform Vs. Cuneiform : Cuneiform1199 Words   |  5 Pageslies in the uncovering of the past remains of our oldest deciphered evidence of writing: Cuneiform. Cuneiform is a style of writing that is the earliest known. The oldest archaeological evidence of it was found in the ancient city Uruk in Mesopotamia where they have unearthed nearly 4000 clay tablets. Their estimated age is dated to roughly 3000 BC; any more specific of a time frame is debated. Cuneiform was a style of writing written on clay tablets where the characters were carved into the tabletsRead MoreThe Mesopotamia And The Nile River Valley1596 Words   |  7 Pagescivilizations. Although these civilizations are similar in many ways, the small, but impacting differences it what makes these two civilizations stand out the most. The Nile River Valley was located in northern Africa in a country called Egypt. Mesopotamia was located in modern day Iraq, Iran, Syria, Kuwait, and parts of Turkey. The origin of Mesopotamia comes from the meaning â€Å"between two rivers.† The land is between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Defining moments for human civilization began wi thin theseRead MoreThe Earliest Forms Of Writing1432 Words   |  6 Pageshistorians. This is made possible as historians can use the first forms of writing-which derive from 3,500 BCE, to serve as a direct source of hearing a point of view from a witness of that time period. Writing began with pictographs, and emerged onto cuneiform, hieroglyphics, ideograms, and phonograms that were carried out by scribes. Writing served its purpose of developing a way to document trades and business accounts, cultural practices- especially those of religion, and government issues and ordersRead MoreAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very1200 Words   |  5 PagesMesopotamia, it was located between Tigris and Euphrates river. Mesopotamia is made up of two regions, northern and southern. The Northern Mesopotamia was rich of fertile soil and it has the river flow often, so it made up hill and plains . They also farmed. Anyways, Both of the civilizations were established and surrounded by water, and it in the middle east and north Africa which is the greatest similarities between the two civilizations. I think the similarities and differences of the location andRead MoreSimilarities Between Ancient Egypt And Mesopotamia951 Words   |  4 Pagesrespective civilization. For instance, when it came to Ancient Egypt there existed a strong emphasized on having a powerful central authority figure, while the Mesopotamians’ political structure consisted of regional city-states. Because of the difference in political structure power was distributed differently in the two civilizations. In ancient Egypt, the central authority was the pharaoh. This person was the sole and absolute ruler of Egypt and as such was responsible for its prosperity. HoweverRead MoreSummary Of The Shallows By Nicholas G. Carr981 Words   |  4 Pagesdeveloped their own systems of writings called cuneiform and hieroglyphs respectively. Cune iform was a system of wedge-shaped characters whereas hieroglyphs was a system of symbols. Both incorporated what is called logosyllabic characters, characters that denoted not just things, but speech sounds too. This meant that both the reader and the writer had to work extra hard to interpret the meaning of each character. As a result, reading and writing cuneiform and hieroglyphs became so mentally stressfulRead MoreThe Mesopotamian Social Classes And How It Had Affected The Education Back There1585 Words   |  7 Pagesis education. Different social classes had affected the education’s methods and level, who gets educated, and the importance of getting educated for Mesopotamian people. And after all, I’ll speak about the part I find most important, the different between the modern and the ancient Mesopotamia. The reason I chose that topic is that because of the huge importance of learning over centuries. the precise arrangement of learning procedures to most kids has been an advancement of the last 200 years orRead MoreMost Historians Believe That Mesopotamia1501 Words   |  7 Pagesbelieve that Mesopotamia, meaning â€Å"between the rivers† in Ancient Greek, is the oldest urban civilization in history. Life in Mesopotamia is thought to have begun over 6000 years ago. Mesopotamia is nick-named The Cradle of Civilization because of its development of inventions, culture, class structure, and judicial system. What was Mesopotamia? Mesopotamia is believed to be the first urban civilization in the history of the Earth. Mesopotamia was the delta between two rivers which were the TigrisRead MoreMesopotamia and Egypt Essay before 600 BC911 Words   |  4 Pagesworld are the Mesopotamians (Beginning 5,000 B.C.) and Egyptians (Beginning 3,150 B.C). Even though these two civilizations peaked about 2,000 years apart, they share numerous similarities contributing to their success, and also show even more differences that distinguish how each had a unique culture and way of life. Both civilizations excelled at feeding and supporting large populations of people. This was done largely because both had techniques that allowed them to excel in farming and agricultureRead MoreBabylon As A Great Civilization1473 Words   |  6 PagesBabylon’s religion and Babylon’s education. Like many other cultures, the Babylonians too were very elaborate on their wedding ceremonies. Marriage signifies the union between the bride and groom is watched over by tons of people. The ceremony conducted then is almost the same as it is conducted today however, the huge difference is the gift giving during the ceremony. The gifts given by guest during the old Babylonian wedding ceremonies range from flour to jewellery. Based upon the gifts given,

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Multiprotocol Label Switching Networks Free Essays

IP networks were initially designed with network survivability in a decentralized networking as the central goal. Thus the Internet infrastructures and protocols were intended from the very beginning for this purpose. As the Internet is evolving into a general-purpose communications network, the new realities require the development of new Internet infrastructure to support real-time-sensitive and multimedia applications such as voice over IP and video conference calls (Smith Collins, 2001). We will write a custom essay sample on Multiprotocol Label Switching Networks or any similar topic only for you Order Now Back in the mid to late 1990s, when most routers were predominantly based on software forwarding rather than hardware forwarding, a number of vendors devised proprietary mechanisms to switch packets far more efficiently than was possible with forwarding based entirely on hop-by-hop longest match IP address lookups. Various aspects of these proprietary mechanisms were effectively merged and developed by the MPLS working groups at the IETF and produced what we know today as MPLS (Edwards, Syngress, McCullough, Lawson, 2000). MPLS is a key component of the new Internet infrastructure and represents a fundamental extension to the original IP-based Internet with changes to the existing infrastructure (Wang, 2002). Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) MPLS introduces connection orientation and packet switching in IP networks. IP datagrams are forwarded by MPLS routers along pre-established paths, based on a short label. This reduces the amount of routing computations, which are carried out only at the times of setting up new paths. MPLS allows introducing new traffic engineering techniques which apply for connection-oriented networks can be applied to MPLS networks. One of these techniques is dynamic routing. Another important application for MPLS networks is the configuration of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) over a public IP network. The benefit of MPLS for this application is that private IP addresses, which may be not unique, are separated from the world-wide valid public IP addresses used in the public IP network. The separation of addresses is realized by building MPLS tunnels through the public IP network. The MPLS protocol can also be run on ATM networks and frame relay networks. This simplifies the interworking between these networks and IP networks (Smith Collins, 2001). MPLS connections are well suited to the fast-forwarding (also called switching) of any type of network layer protocol (not just IP), hence the word multiprotocol in the name. it will be widely used for two main types of application: First, it adds controllability of IP networks. As already noted, an IP network is much like a â€Å"free-for-all† highway without traffic control, to use the analogy of a highway system. All the traffic can be crammed onto the highway at once, and each router along the way tries its best to get the traffic through without any guarantee of succeeding, MPLS marks ‘lanes’ with labels for the IP highway, and each packet flow has to follow a predefined lane or path. Once the ‘lanes’ are marked, a set of traffic parameters can be associated with each lane to guarantee the service delivery. It reduces randomness and adds controllability to the IP network (Edwards et al., 2000). Second, MPLS adds switching capability to the routing-based IP network. The traditional Internet structure has every router along the way examine the destination address inside a packet and determine the next hop. In a switched network, each switch routes the traffic from the input port to a predetermined output port without examining the contents of each packet. This is also called route once and switch many times, since the packet contents are examined only at the entry of the MPLS network to determine a proper ‘lane’ for the packet. The benefits of this change include speedup of network traffic and network scalability(Smith Collins, 2001). Summary and Conclusion Label switching is something that has been significant interest from the Internet community, and significant effort has been made to define a protocol called Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). MPLS involves the attachment of a short label to a packet in from of the IP header. This effectively is like inserting a new layer between the IP layer and the underlying link layer of the OSI model. The label contains all the information that a router needs to forward a packet. The value of a label may be used to look up the next hop in the path and forward to the next router. The difference between this and standard IP routing is that the match is an exact one and is not a case of looking for the longest match (that is, the match with the longest subnet mask). This enables faster routing decisions within routers (Wang, 2002). The expansion rates for Internet protocol (IP) interchange and users persist to be very remarkable. What once was a technology principally used within the territories of academe and leisure is now being utilized around the world for conventional commerce submissions, like e-commerce, Web-based industry in the development of the carrier system as service contributors around the world concentrate on optimization and benefit efficiency (Edwards et al., 2000). In many ways, MPLS is as much of a traffic engineering protocol as it is a Quality of Service (QoS) protocol. It is somewhat analogous to the establishment of virtual circuits in ATM and can lead to similar QoS benefits. It helps to provide QoS by helping to better manage traffic. Whether it should be called traffic engineering protocol of QoS protocol hardly matters if the end results is better QoS (Wang, 2002). References: Edwards, M. J., Syngress, R. F., McCullough, A., Lawson, W. (2000). Building Cisco Remote Access Networks. Rockland, MA: Syngress. Smith, C., Collins, D. (2001). 3G Wireless Networks. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. Wang, H. H. (2002). Packet Broadband Network Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. How to cite Multiprotocol Label Switching Networks, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

What Is Means to Have a Duty of Care in Own Work Role free essay sample

Explain what is means to have a duty of care in own work role| As a childminder I have a duty of care to keep all my minded children safe, healthy and comfortable while making sure their rights are guarded. I have a duty of care to keep children from harm whether physical or psychological. I carry out risk assessments in my home and when out and about to avoid potential hazards to children. Risk assessments are reviewed every year or when accidents/incidents happen and there is a need for review. The house is equipped with safety equipment to minimise risk of injury or harm. Stair gates, plug sockets and cupboard locks are in place to name a few. There are set house rules that are to be followed at all times such as we do not run, we walk in the house and we use furniture for sitting on rather than climbing on. Older children are asked to lead by an example and to show the younger ones positive behaviour. Positive behaviour is always rewarded by praise. All children are taught to respect each other and to have empathy for one another. Any unreasonable behaviour or bulling is dealt with straight away and is not acceptable. I have a Behaviour policy in place. Children are encouraged to wash their hands before food, after playing outside, after touching pets and cuts. All children have their own towels to dry their hands and antibacterial soap is provided to reduce the spread of any infections or bacteria. I have a cleaning regime in place to make sure all equipment is kept clean and tidy. I follow a correct hygiene rules for food preparation and use antibacterial spray to eliminate germs. If a child is unwell with infectious dieses there may be an exclusion period depending on child’s illness. I have a health and safety policy as well as Illness policy in place. To make sure children’s progress in their development is on track I carry out regular observations and bimonthly progress check. This helps me to assess how well the children are developing and I am able to recognise if their progress is not as broadly expected and they may need additional support and help. I will take relevant actions and work with the parents or other professional to help children to reach their potential. All children are safeguarded at all times. I also have a Child protection policy. I look out for signs that may indicate any form of abuse which are recorded and my procedure is followed. If a child goes missing whilst in my care I will follow a procedure in my Missing child policy. To avoid such a thing from happening all children are always very closely guarded when on an outings. Small children are kept in a buggy or on the reins to ensure they can’t wonder off. At home all doors are kept locked at all time with keys only accessible to responsible adult. As a childminder my duty is to care for children in my care. I do not leave children unattended and any visitors to my home have to sign visitor’s book. | 1. 2 Explain how duty of care contributes to the safeguarding or protection of individuals. | Having a duty of care means constant observation and assessment of all children. Observation is not only of their progress but also their behaviour and physical health. I have a policies and procedures I follow one of which is my Child protection policy. My first responsibility is towards children in my care and if I have any cause for concern I will report this to relevant body (Social services department). By encouraging children to develop a sense of autonomy and independence through support in making choices and in finding names for their own feelings and acceptable ways to express them, children will gain the self-confidence and vocabulary to resist inappropriate approaches. Teaching children what is right and wrong and being a good role model will help them to make the right choices in play. They will understand that jumping of the table is not acceptable as they may hurt themselves-common sense. Teaching children personal hygiene will minimise a risk of them getting ill and passing it on to another child. | Unit SHC 34 2. Describe potential conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights. | Children love to play and explore. For example while in a park a child will want to climb a ladder to go on a slide. Natural reaction may be to hold or even pick up a child and put them up. Children learn best when trying and experiencing things t hemselves. There is a risk of a child slipping and falling of the steps but a child also has a right to experience facilities to aid their development. Children need to learn how to predict and avoid dangerous situations. Another potential dilemma may be confidentiality. I must ensure that all personal information is kept confidential and is not shared with anyone else unless permission form is signed. But if there is a case of concern that a child’s welfare may be at risk social services have to be informed. There is also a possibility of conflict with parent’s wishes due to their culture and religion. | 2. 2 Describe how to manage risks associated with conflicts or dilemmas between an individuals rights and the duty of care. | Whilst having a duty of care it is important to find the right balance between children’s rights and parent’s/carer’s responsibilities. Sometimes children’s rights may outweigh the risk. As a childminder I am there to support all children on their journey of learning and experience. By minimizing any risks (risk assessing) and following safety procedures all children are given the best opportunity to learn without compromising their rights. If on the other hand a risk is too great, I will stop the child from coming to any harm. Duty of care may prevail over rights in child abuse cases, where it is important to share some confidential information with social services. It is clearly stated in my policy that all information on children and the families are kept confidential and will not be shared without signed permission form. I will however divulge confidential information to Social services and Ofsted if I have any concerns that child is being abused (Child protection policy). When conflict between duty of care and individual’s rights arises, I will do my best to make sure children’s safety, wishes, religion and rights are considered. In some cases I will seek advice and support. | Unit SHC 34 2. 3 Explain where to get additional support and advice about conflicts and dilemmas. I work in partnership with parents I will seek advice and support from child’s them. By keeping parents informed about any plans involving their child and by asking to sign permission forms. It is important to me to establish a good working relationship with parents as this will help in solving many dilemmas and conflicts. In some cases I may refer to the internet and search local authority and their information on line. I may call social services or my local early years team for advice. I may talk to other professionals, unless this would breach confidentiality. My policies and procedures will be my first point of reference. I will seek more training if needed to make sure children rights are met. | 3. 1 amp; 3. 2 Describe how you would respond to a complaint include the main points of the agreed procedure of your setting for handling complaints – please don’t say you would refer it to your manger, you may not necessarily deal with it in your setting, but you need to describe what you would do as person in charge | I have Complaints policy as well as Allegations of abuse against a childminder policy. If a complaint is made will first try to arrange a meeting between me and the parents. I would hope the matter can be discussed openly. Any concerns raised will be dealt with seriously, effectively and in confidential manner. Depending on nature of the complaint I will either investigate it myself or ask Ofsted to investigate. I will provide parents with an account of the findings of the investigation within 28 days of receiving their complaint. I will inform the parents of any actions taken. I will keep all records of complaints, discussions and any agreements reached. If however parents feel they would like to make a formal complaint they can contact Ofsted. Their phone number is displayed on the notice board. I will follow procedure in my Allegations of abuse against childminder policy to protect myself and my family from any accusations or complaints. I will keep records of all visitors and never leave children unsupervised. Any marks and bruises found on a child on arrival will be recorded with parents explanation of how these marks occurred. I will record all accidents and incidents and have them signed by parents. In case of complaint or allegation made against me I will contact Ofsted and my insurance company for advice.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Why and how did the US get involved in the Korean War

Table of Contents Introduction Why How Conclusion Works Cited Introduction On the surface, the Korean War seemed like a normal war between North and South Korea; however, there was more to it than what met the eye. This was a war between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Critics and adherents alike have come up with many hypotheses as to why and how the US government got involved in the Korean War.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why and how did the US get involved in the Korean War? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Why According to Park, America got involved because of the â€Å"Domino Theory; a political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control† (96). In 1949, China had become one such a victim of communism and Truman knew if Korea went the same way, Japan would follow suit, something that would c ripple America’s economy. â€Å"Before the tide turned, the U.S. established very high war aims of seeking the destruction of the Communist regime in North Korea† (Reiter 63). It is evident that Truman never liked communism for he believed that it would undermine capitalism and freedom, important elements of American life. Cotton and Neary posit that, â€Å"the bombing as purely a military operation†¦as a means of applying pressure on the communists†¦ (107). Truman acted on the 1950 National Security Council report (NCS 68), which called for abolishment of communism. On the other hand, some scholars believe that America was competing against the USSR for world domination; consequently, Truman did not want to attack Russia directly so he opted to support South Korea as a way of fighting communism without involving the USSR directly. Other compelling reasons include the fact that after America lost its bid to control China from becoming a communist state coup led with the USSR’s acquiring atomic bomb, a preserve for the Americans; many people believed that the American government was becoming weak. Therefore, to prove that the American government was not weak, therefore, Truman acted to prove that the US government was as strong as ever. Other unusual interpreters claim, â€Å"Both sides wanted to unite but could not agree on what type of government, so the North tried to unite it forcefully by crossing the 38th parallel on June 25th 1950† (Park 99). By crossing over to the South, the North was angering the USA for it controlled the South region. Finally, America got involved in this war to honor her pledge contained in Truman’s document that stated that America would help any country that was willing to root out communism.Advertising Looking for research paper on asian? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How The USA sent her troops to the Southern Korea governmen t under the pretext of United Nation’s peacekeeping mission; however, â€Å"†¦the UN forces of the free world, with the United States as its key participant joined the conflict to aid South Korea† (Millet 1). It is true that the North began the war by invading the South; something that led the UN; which was only five years old then, to ask ally nations to offer military support to the South region. Nevertheless, as aforementioned, Jenkins and Fredrick observe that, â€Å"To Kim’s surprise, however, the United States rose to action immediately† (xxiii). Therefore, it was an American exercise under the guise of the UN. Conclusion The Korean War was not just a normal war between the Southern and the Northern region; no, it was war between the US and the USSR as they contested for world supremacy among other reasons. Particularly, America wanted to protect her trade with Japan and lifestyles; these elements were under threat of communism. The sources us ed here are helpful for they offer different reasons behind America’s involvement in the Korean War. Without these different sources, one would think America went to this war for one reason; fortunately, these sources are peer-reviewed materials hence offering credible information. Works Cited Cotton, James, Neary, Ian. â€Å"The Korean War in History.† Manchester; Manchester University Press, 1989. Jenkins, Charles, Frederick, Jim. â€Å"The Reluctant Communist: My Desertion, Court-Martial, And Forty-Year Imprisonment in North Korea.† California; University of California Press, 2008.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Why and how did the US get involved in the Korean War? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Millett, Allan. â€Å"The Korean War.† The Korea Institute of Military History, 1999. Park, Hong-Kyu. â€Å"America Involvement in the Korean War.† Society for History Education, 1983. 16(2); 96-103 Reiter, Dan. â€Å"How Wars End.† New Jersey; Princeton University Press, 2009. This research paper on Why and how did the US get involved in the Korean War? was written and submitted by user Alina Lott to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

What is Urban Fantasy Definition and Examples

What is Urban Fantasy Definition and Examples What is Urban Fantasy? Definition and Examples Urban fantasy is perhaps one of the most exciting subgenre fantasies right now. From werewolves in Manhattan to gnomes in suburban gardens, it is a major part of the movement that is re-defining â€Å"fantasy† in the 21st-century.But what is urban fantasy exactly - and where can you go to read more of it? This guide is here to help, along with a few tips on how to write urban fantasy in this magical subgenre.What is urban fantasy?Urban fantasy describes a subgenre of fantasy in which the real world collides with the decidedly supernatural or magical world. Sounds simple, right? Think again! Fantasy and its subgenres are notoriously elastic, making the definition of â€Å"urban fantasy† decidedly open-ended. In the past, the term’s been used to describe a fantasy story that is set in:a city in an alternate world,a city in the modern world, orthe modern world.These days, this is the understanding that is most widespread: to be an urban fantasy, the story simply ne eds to be a fantasy with supernatural elements that is set in our world and modern time. Under this definition, the â€Å"urban† in â€Å"urban fantasy† is a bit of a red herring. So long as there are supernatural elements, the story can take place in either a modern New York City or Milwaukee, and it will still count.Urban fantasy stories also generally have strong tropes, such as gritty action, a noir feel, and a procedural plot (and we’ll get into this later in this post). This is why you’ll commonly hear the Sookie Stackhouse series, which is actually set in a rural small-town, labeled as an â€Å"urban fantasy† - whereas Harry Potter, for instance, rarely is.How does it differ from paranormal romance?Paranormal fantasy and urban fantasy are two birds of the same feather, which explains why they’re confused so often! Both are speculative fiction with supernatural elements in a real-world setting. Both also feature a romantic plot or sub plot in some shape or form.However, romance is the main plot and primary conflict in paranormal romance, while it is generally a subplot in urban fantasy. More than that, urban fantasies are known to have gritty violence and a tone that can get so dark it might even touch the horror genre. Keeping that mind, let’s see what urban fantasy looks like in action.Examples of urban fantasyThe best way to learn what is urban fantasy is to look at some examples! Here are two urban fantasy books that helped define the genre.American Gods by Neil GaimanIn the bygone days, people in the United States believed in gods and mythological beings. Indeed, immigrants brought leprechauns, elves, and all sorts of magical spirits with them when they came to the U.S. However, the influence of these deities has begun waning as belief in them dies and people turn their attention to the new gods: media and technology.This is the stage of Gaiman's acclaimed novel, which begins with an ex-convict, Shado w, being accosted by a Mr. Wednesday, who is not all that he seems. Shadow soon discovers he is standing in the middle of a war between America's ideological past and future - with nothing less than the country's fate hanging in the balance.Why is it a good sample of urban fantasy? American Gods is a 21st century classic of the genre: a grand fusion of fantasy and the modern world that doesn’t forget to explore the ramifications of such a mindmeld. Defying genre expectations, also  American Gods is not situated in a city. Instead, Shadow’s road trip is set mostly in America’s liminal spaces - its rest stops, motels, and small towns.The Dresden Files by Jim ButcherIn an embattled Chicago where vampires, demons, werewolves, and fairies co-exist with humans, Harry Dresden is the world’s only â€Å"consulting wizard.† Hired by humans and supernatural beings alike to solve everything from murders to rogue bakus, he has to get by on his private inves tigator’s salary, even as his work thrusts him into the darkest - and most magical - corners of gritty Chicago.Why is it a good sample of urban fantasy? Another classic in the genre - and a popular example of the way that traditional P.I. plots and fantasy collide in urban fantasy.And if you’d like the whole buffet of urban fantasy: head over to this Reedsy Discovery post of  20 best urban fantasy books  or this post that contains  33 best vampire books. You can also check out this list of the 100 best fantasy series ever, which includes a number of urban fantasy seriesPRO-TIP: To get early and exclusive access to new indie urban fantasy books, consider signing up for Reedsy Discovery! It's free and you'll be the first to discover tomorrow's bestsellers in the genre.How to write urban fantasyConfident that you know what urban fantasy is now and want to give writing it a go? Great. Here are some tips to help you along.1. Know the tropes How to Create a Character Profile: the Ultimate Guide (with Template) Read post Urban fantasies are also character-driven at heart. First person point of views abound, letting readers inside the head of the protagonist. It would be well worth your time to sit down and figure out the key details of your character, including their motivation and backstory. If you need help, you can grab this free fillable character profile.The best part of writing urban fantasy is that there’s so much room to explore. Now that you have a framework for the genre, it’s up to you to pick up that pen - and let your imagination carry you the rest of the way.Do you write or read urban fantasy? Leave your thoughts (and book recommendations) in the comments below!

Friday, November 22, 2019

Are organizations rational Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Are organizations rational - Essay Example 490). Efficiency itself is a fundamental necessity of an organization both for the top management and the organizational workers. The theory of administration is â€Å"concerned with how an organization should be constructed to accomplish its work efficiently† (Davis, 1996). There are two important elements in a rational organization i.e. goals’ specificity, and formalization. Specificity of goals establishes allocation of resources by laying out rules and regulations for specific activities so that they can be accomplished in a regulated manner. Formalization, on the other hand, is a strategy of standardizing behavior of the organizational personnel. If these two elements are present in an organization, top management can form stable expectations from the organizational personnel and a rational organizational system comes into being. Dr. Frederick Winslow Taylor tried to rationalize organizational personnel by analyzing the ways in which the amount of output can be maximized with the minimal use of resources (Montemurro, n.d., p. 2). Some ways in which this can be achieved include distribution of work responsibilities between workers and managers, establishment of incentive system on the basis of performance, scientific training of workers, deve lopment of science for the responsibilities of each worker, and timely achievement of goals on the part of all workers. Taylor thinks that if the efficiency of the organizational personnel is increased in the scientific manger, this would not just increase opportunities for them to get more work, but would also play a role in improving the quality of life. Some problems that surface out of scientific management include workers’ tendency to rebel against the mundaneness in a standardized system, and workers’ tendency to reject the incentive system because of the need to show optimal productivity

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Chlamydia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Chlamydia - Research Paper Example In addition, it affects both men and women. Additionally, about 30 to 50 percent of the women in the United States have been exposed to the bacterium at one point in their life. Additionally, Chlamydia ascends to the upper genital tract if left untreated in about 40 percent of the cases. As a result, C. trachomatis is known to be one of the major causes of acquired infertility. Generally, due to the high prevalence and adverse complication of untreated infections Chlamydia remains a major public health problem in industrialized countries (Dean, et al., 2009). As aforementioned, Chlamydia is transmitted from one individual to another through oral and sexual contact. Penetrative sexual intercourse is the primary mode of transmission. Chlamydia is transmitted through the vagina, anus, and oral sexual intercourse with an disease-ridden partner (Malhotra, Sood, Mukherjee, Muralidhar, & Bala, 2013). Infected individuals are the reservoirs of the infection. According to Breguet (2006), Mother to Child Transmission (MCT) can occur during vaginal delivery. In addition, conjunctivitis can occur on the occasion that a person touches his or her eyes with infected hands. The infections occur in the urethra, cervix, throat, rectum, eyes, throat, penis, and cervix (Breguet, 2006). According to the CDC (2007), a quarter of the females infected and half of the males do not present with any symptoms. In this regard, it is referred to as the ‘silent’ disease. However, in the population that presents with symptoms, they usually occur within 1 to 3 weeks after infection. Additionally, the symptoms tend to present differently in both men and women. The urethra and the cervix are the major organs affected in women. After an infection, women present with symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge and pain when passing urine. An infection of the cervix and fallopian tubes is characterized by symptoms such as pain during copulation, abnormal vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain,

Monday, November 18, 2019

Cancer patients and results of radiations Essay

Cancer patients and results of radiations - Essay Example The primary types of cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Biologic, hormone and targeted therapies also exist. Surgery involves the removal of cancerous tissue or tumor. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy on the other hand, are non-invasive. Radiation therapy is used to treat cancer cells that are localized, while chemotherapy is used to treat cancer cells that are no longer localized and have spread to other parts of the body. In radiation therapy, patients are subjected to high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors (National Cancer Institute i). Common types of radiations used in this treatment include gamma rays, charged particles and X-rays. The radiation could be delivered externally or internally. Around half of all cancer patients undergo some form of radiation therapy during their treatment (National Cancer Institute i). Radiation therapy damages the DNA of cancer cells in order to kill them. While radiation therapy is used to kill cancer cells, it may also damage normal cells, resulting in serious side-effects. Chemotherapy involves the use of strong drugs administered orally or through injection. Like radiation therapy, chemotherapy also has serious side effects depending on the length of the treatment, the types of drugs taken and the amount of dosage administered. Some of the side effects include vomiting, nausea, hair loss, fatigue and increased chances of infections (American Cancer Society 11). Similarly, the side effects of radiation therapy depend on the body area being treated, dosage administered per day, total dosage given, general medical condition and other treatments that are being administered at the same time (National Cancer Institute x). It can cause both early and late side effects. Early (acute) side effects are those that occur during the treatment while late

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Live Together Before Marriage?

Live Together Before Marriage? Now-a-days it is the trend among the people that they move in before marriage. Either love or attachment plays a vital role in it. But the main concept of men and women living together before marriage is considered as a sin in some religions, or most religions. But as the world is making progress so are the minds of people, changing according with the time. Now an individual before even engagement or marriage moves in and then tries to understand the other person. Sometimes, this is the reason and sometimes it is not depending on the thinking and mentality of people. But it can be a problem for women as well as for men. Now the basic problem is that what a person should do? Whether he should let the change happen, or he shouldnt. A New Woman magazine study by Columbia University discovered that twenty six percent of women reviewed and a slight nineteen percent of men wed the individual with whom they were co-habiting. The mean cohabitant has several partners in a lifetime. Cohabitati on involves no public firm promise, no promise for the future, no authorized statement of love and blame. There is essentially a personal placement founded on an emotional bond. The commitment of dwelling simultaneously is easily a month-to-month rental agreement. There is a statement in The Future Of Marriage by Jessie Bernard in which he stated, One fundamental fact underlies the conception of marriage itself. Some kind of firm pledge should be involved. Merely fly-by-night, feel and go relationships do not specify. According to him the people who get married with a condition of dying with each other possess a reasonably distinct level of firm pledge, thus a quite distinct grade of security, therefore a rather distinct grade of freedom, and as an outcome a rather different grade of joyfulness than those who wed with a condition in their mind that they will last together till their love last. These types of people habitually anticipate the instant when they or their partner gets up one sunrise and discovers the fine emotion that retains them afloat has disintegrated under them. Cohabitation is a dangerous trend that has recently been too readily accepted without much resistance or criticism from society Is cohabitation a sin or not depends on what one means by the word moving in together, in the Bible it is clearly stated that having a sexual relationship before marriage is a sin and in the Bible the word fornication has been used to explain the forbidden deed of living together before marriage and how sexually immoral such an act is. In most of the religions practiced all over the world the concept of cohabitation is prohibited and is considered as a sin for which one cannot be forgiven. Many couples living together are happy internally but due to the guilt inside of committing a sin and the social not acceptance of their relationship disturb their bond and they are in a constant insecure state. America is a State where the society has widely accepted this socially constructed concept of living in together although Christianity does not allow that a man and women should live together before marriage as it results in temptation that leads them to cross every limit and turn into an e nemy of God. Living together means two people with consensus making a decision to go against the will of God for the sake of love or sexual temptation, which can be definitely called a sin. Why a sin? Well because the whole approach undermines the value of a family structure and mainly because almost all the religions do not accept it as a moral deed. Body: A: Is living together before marriage wrong? Cohabitation takes away the charm of marriage and turns it into a compromise if children are involved. Couples that move in together to try out if they can have a happy married life end up in a broken relationship which leaves a long lasting effect on their lifes. The growing trend of living together is wrong because according to various surveys and research reports the cohabitant couples are most likely not interested in marrying each other and even if they do there is a high rate of separation, sexual abuse and mental torture not only for the couple but for the children as well. How would a parent stop his/her daughter from living in with another guy if they have practiced the same act? Children of cohabitant couples have a high tendency of indulging in immoral activities in their young teenage and suffer from physical violence. The people who move in together before marriage are also expected to have extramarital affairs and are not good at commitments. Most importantly it is a re ligious sin and is an act if practiced pushes Gods blessing away from you. It is a physical attraction that leads to instability in life; even many satisfied live in partners end up in the torturing break ups and a constant feeling of fear and resentment. (Don Weston) Some say cohabitation is not wrong, what is the big deal if two people want to live together and share their expenses and responsibilities? The younger generation of today finds living together a very attractive package, one gets to enjoy all the desires without any legality. There is no risk of divorce, many justify it by claiming that moving in together before marriage gives them an opportunity to know each other more closely and decide whether to get involved in a legal relationship or not. With the rapid increase in modernization this trend has been now accepted as a culture in many parts of the United State. B: Why do the Cons outweigh the Pros of living together before marriage? Living in together before marriage for the new generation is like a roller coaster ride for free! Whereas they dont see the side effects of availing this package, the cons are enough for the critics to justify their criticism on living in together. Though many couples prefer moving in together rather than getting into a serious marital relationship which actually shows the level of commitment they share, and the sacred relation of marriage they are scared to get involved in. The more a couple is sexually active before marriage the greater they have a chance to get divorced, because they get over with all the temptation and craze as much as they prolong their living together time period. (Fowler, 2005) Conclusion: Cohabitation is forbidden: The couples who favor cohabitation even if are in majority cannot deny that religiously as well as morally the concept of as a Bible calls it fornication is forbidden by God in nature. The word pornography had been originated from this same word and as it is seen the society considers such websites and acts highly immoral and against their beliefs and religion. The acceptance of this concept by society means they are accepting a trend which will destroy the institution of marriage as well as the responsibility of parents will be questioned as well due to getting involved multiply in such a deed. Although this concept has been growing in Christ but Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and many other religions are strictly forbidden from committing any such deed and if they do so they believe that they will be answerable to God Almighty and even if God forgives; it is not easy to be forgiven by the society for something that is sinful and is forbidden in nature. Work Cited: Grinberg, Emanuella. Report: More women moving in before marriage. 4 April 2013. CNN. 2013 . Gueren, Casey. Are You Ready to Move in Together? 11 April 2013. The Scoop. 2013 . Kaplan, Karen. More Americans are living together before marriage, study finds. 03 April 2013. L.ATimes. 2013 . Murray, Rheana. Half of couples move in before marriage, stay there longer: CDC. 5 May 2013. NYDailyNews. 2013 . Staff, Patch. Study Reported by CDC Reveals More People Now Live Together Before Marriage. 5 April 2013. DuluthPatch. 2013 . Don Weston, L. M. Twenty Good Reasons why not to cohabitant Before Marriage. Kansas City, Missouri: Family Life Ministries- Church of the Nazarene Jim Pettit, PhD coordinator. Fowler, R. (2005) Scriptures on Living Together Before Marriage

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

ONE SIDED LOVE Essay -- essays research papers

The story was written by John Steinbeck by the name â€Å"The Chrysanthemums†. The story takes a place on a farm in December 1938. The story is based on three characters: Elisa, her husband Henry, and the tinker. Elisa was 35 years old and was married to Henry. She was a hard workingwoman on a farm. It was a virile occupation, compared with her husband who was a businessman. Their relationship wasn’t normal. He didn’t see her as a lady, due to her unattractive appearance. One day the tinker passed by her house, and changed her life. The tinker caused her to confirm her femininity.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The tinker made her laugh by his stories, and reflect her. He was curious about her chrysanthemums, and complimented her for her work. Her husband never realized nor was interested in her talent. She explained the tinker how to grow the Chrysanthemums successfully. â€Å"Her eyes shone† she tore off the battered hat and â€Å"shook out her dark pretty hair†. After awhile, she offered him a flowerpot to take along with him. The tinker was glad to get the seeds in the pot, although it was not what he wished for. Now, she did not care about her gloves from her excitement. She used her strong fingers to fill up the pot with soil. â€Å"Her face was tight with eagerness†, when she looked at him.† Her breast swelled passionately†. After the tinker left she whispered: â€Å"that’s a bright direction, there’s a glow in there†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Elisa felt disgraced about her self so, she ... ONE SIDED LOVE Essay -- essays research papers The story was written by John Steinbeck by the name â€Å"The Chrysanthemums†. The story takes a place on a farm in December 1938. The story is based on three characters: Elisa, her husband Henry, and the tinker. Elisa was 35 years old and was married to Henry. She was a hard workingwoman on a farm. It was a virile occupation, compared with her husband who was a businessman. Their relationship wasn’t normal. He didn’t see her as a lady, due to her unattractive appearance. One day the tinker passed by her house, and changed her life. The tinker caused her to confirm her femininity.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The tinker made her laugh by his stories, and reflect her. He was curious about her chrysanthemums, and complimented her for her work. Her husband never realized nor was interested in her talent. She explained the tinker how to grow the Chrysanthemums successfully. â€Å"Her eyes shone† she tore off the battered hat and â€Å"shook out her dark pretty hair†. After awhile, she offered him a flowerpot to take along with him. The tinker was glad to get the seeds in the pot, although it was not what he wished for. Now, she did not care about her gloves from her excitement. She used her strong fingers to fill up the pot with soil. â€Å"Her face was tight with eagerness†, when she looked at him.† Her breast swelled passionately†. After the tinker left she whispered: â€Å"that’s a bright direction, there’s a glow in there†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Elisa felt disgraced about her self so, she ...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Nelson Mandela And His Life And Work History History Essay

Nelson Mandela. The adult male everyone knows about. The adult male who was against the Apartheid. He did n't merely speak about it, but he besides did something about it. He ‘s a great adult male. In this chapter we ‘ll speak about his life, his actions and how these actions have changed the universe. Biography Rolihlahla Mandela, subsequently called Nelson Mandela, was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo. A bantam small town in the state of Transkei, South Africa. Mandela ‘s male parent had three married womans. The 3rd one was Mandela ‘s female parent, here name was Nosekeni Fanny. Mandela ‘s male parent was destined to be a main and served as a counselor to tribal heads. But this was non traveling tot happen. Over a difference with the local colonial magistrate, he lost his rubric and luck. Because of this event, they were forced to travel tot Qunu. This was an even smaller small town so Mvezo and lay in North of it. The small town was n't developed by far. There were n't any roads, merely some foot waies. The household lived in huts and could merely afford the local crop to eat. This consisted corn, sorghum, Cucurbita pepo and beans. Water could merely be fetched from springs and watercourses and cookery was done outdoors. Mandela ‘s household had a truly heard clip, but he himself could still be a kid. He played games with the other male childs who lived in the small town. Rolihlahla ‘s male parent ‘s friends suggested that Rolihlahla would travel to the Methodist church and so he became the first in his household to go to school. As was the usage at the clip, Rolihlahla got a new first name. This was likely due to significance of his old name: ‘troublemaker ‘ . His instructor told him his new name would be ‘Nelson ‘ . Since so Mandela was no longer called Rolihlahla, but Nelson Mandela. The name of the adult male we know today as a really great adult male in history. When Nelson Mandela was nine old ages old his male parent died of a lung disease. This changed his life dramatically. He was adopted by Chief Jongintaba Dalindvebo, the moving trustee of the Thembu people. Old ages earlier Nelson ‘s male parent had recommended Jongintaba to be made a head. So this was done as a gesture to him. This acceptance meant that Nelson had to go forth the small town Qunu. He moved to Mqhekezweni, the provincial capital of Thembuland. Here was the head ‘s royal abode where Nelson would be populating in the following few old ages. His new household treated him good. Nelson was given the same position and duties as the trustee ‘s two other kids, his boy Justice and his girl Namafu. Nelson besides got instruction. He studied English, Xhosa, history and geographics at a one-room school next to the castle. During his stay in Mqhekezweni, a few senior trustees came to the Great Palace on official concern. It was caused by them that he got so interested by African history. They told him about South Africa. About the manner how the people lived in peace before the white people had arrived. The people of South Africa lived as brothers until the white work forces ruined that bond. The white work forces took all the land for themselves and left nil for its original dwellers. This cognition has had a great influence on his ulterior life. When the male childs in Africa were 16 old ages old, they would do the passage from boyhood to manhood. So would Mandela. This was a ritual every male child would travel through in his life. When it was Mandela ‘s bend, it was n't an ordinary rite. Most of the clip the rite was something you should be happy about. You were turning into a adult male! But this clip it was n't that cheerful. The chief talker at the ceremonial, Chief Meliggili, spoke unhappily of the immature work forces as a coevals enslaved in their ain state. Their land was under the control of the white work forces, so they would ne'er hold the power to regulate themselves, he said. Because of this it was non the ceremonial the immature male childs had expected. But at least, Nelson had eventually turned into a adult male! In 1939, the twelvemonth when Nelson turned 18, he went to the University College of Fort Hare. This was the lone residential Centre of higher acquisition for inkinesss in South Africa. You can compare Fort Hare with Oxford or Harvard. Mandela took all the needed classs, but focused on Roman Dutch jurisprudence. This was to fix for a calling in civil service as an translator or clerk. This was the best profession you could obtain as a black adult male. A few hebdomads after Nelson got home from the University College of Fort Hare, the trustee Jongintaba announced he had arranged a matrimony for him. Mandela was shocked and felt trapped. He ran off to Johannesburg, where he had a assortment of occupations. While he was working he besides was finishing his unmarried man ‘s degree via correspondence classs. After this he went to the University of Witwatersrand where he studied jurisprudence. During his survey he became actively involved in the anti-apartheid motion and joined the African National Congress ( ANC ) in 1942. Within the ANC, a little group of immature Africans ( Nelson Mandela included ) bonded together, naming themselves the African National Congress Youth League. They wanted to alter the old tactics of polite petitioning. They wanted to make something that was effectual. In 1949 the ANC officially adopted the methods of the Youth League. From now on they used methods like work stoppages, civil noncompliance and non-cooperation with the white work forces. Their end was to acquire redistribution of land, merchandise brotherhood rights and free and mandatory instruction for all the black kids. For 20 old ages Nelson directed a run of peaceable, non-violent rebelliousness against the South African authorities and its racialist policies. These runs included the Defiance Campaign in 1952 and the Congress of the Peoples in 1955. But non everything was condoned. In 1956 Mandela and 150 others were arrested, but besides instantly acquitted. During this period, a new organisation was formed, the Africanists. Another group of black militants, but who disagreed with the methods of the ANC. They thought it was uneffective. By 1959 the ANC lost much of its support, because of the Pan-Africanist Congress. The new name of the Africanists, who had grown in figure of back uping people. Mandela, who was ever committed tot non-violent protest, began to believe otherwise by 1961. He believed the lone manner to accomplish alteration was armed battle. Because of this new idea he co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe, besides known as MK. This was an armed outgrowth of the ANC. It was formed to stop apartheid utilizing guerrilla war tactics and sabotage. He organized a three-day national workers work stoppage in 1961, which led to his apprehension in 1962. He was sentenced to five old ages in prison for the work stoppage. But this was n't the concluding determination. He was brought to test once more in 1963, where he and ten other ANC leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment for political offenses, including sabotage. Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island. Here he received the lowest degree of intervention because of the fact that he was a black political captive. However, Mandela spent a portion of his imprisonment rather good. He earned a Bachelor of Law degree through a University of London correspondence plan. About everyone in the universe knew Mandela by so. He was a symbol of black opposition. Mandela got much international support, but this was n't that helpful for him. The South African authorities kept him locked up on Robben Island. Mandela did n't remain on Robben Island. In 1982 he and the other ANC leaders were moved to Pollsmoor Prison. This was to enable contact between the captives and the authorities of South Africa. Many offers were made to Mandela. So offered president P.W. Botha in 1985 Mandela ‘s release in exchange for abdicating armed battle, but this offer was rejected. The force per unit area continued to lift. Not merely local, but besides international. In 1989 Botha suffered a shot. Because of this he was replaces by Frederik Willem de Klerk. This alteration of president led to the release of Mandela in 1990. Not merely this had changed. The ANC were unbanned, the limitations on political groups were removed and executings were suspended. Mandela did n't desire foreign powers to interfere. He stated a committedness to work toward peace. But he did n't stop the armed battle of the ANC. This would go on until the black bulk received the right to vote. In 1991 Mandela was elected president of the ANC. He kept negociating with president De Klerk. He still wanted multi-racial elections. The white people were willing to portion the power, so that was n't the job. The job was that many black Africans wanted a complete transportation of power. The dialogues were frequently really labored and there were a batch of violent eruptions trough the whole state. Besides Mandela played a function in the agitation of the land. He made certain the presentations and armed opposition went on, to put an even heavier force per unit area on the South African authorities. Mandela ‘s tactics led to success. On April 27, 1994, the first democratic elections were held in South Africa. A few months subsequently, on May 10, 1994, Mandela ( who was 77 old ages old ) was chosen to be the state ‘s first black president. De Klerk was became his first deputy. Nelson and de Klerk won the Nobel Prize for Pease in 1993, for leveling apartheid. Mandela published his autobiography ‘Long Walk to Freedom ‘ in 1994. Much of this book had he, in secret, written while he was in prison. Mandela worked while he was president on the relationship between the black and the white people. He used the state ‘s enthusiasm for athleticss for this. He encouraged the black work forces to back up the white work forces with their athleticss, in peculiar Rugby. And so he encouraged the white work forces to back up the black work forces with their athleticss. This led to Mandela ‘s end, a better relationship between those to groups. Not merely did he work on this, he besides worked on the state ‘s economic system. He protected it from prostration. Mandela had formed a Reconstruction and Development Plan, which led to the creative activity of new occupations, lodging and basic wellness attention. In 1996 he signed into the jurisprudence of South Africa that everyone was equal to each other and that everyone had the right to vote. In 1999 Mandela retired from active political relations. He still maintained a busy agenda. He had founded his ain organisation: the Mandela Foundation. This foundation built schools and clinics in South Africa. He besides published a figure of books. Those were about his life and battle. Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate malignant neoplastic disease. Three old ages subsequently, in June 2004, he announced his formal retirement from public life. He returned to his native small town of Qunu. This was at the age of 85 old ages. In July 2007, Mandela convened a group of universe leaders in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Among them Graca Machel, Desmond Tutu, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus. They named themselves ‘The Elders ‘ . This group wanted to happen solutions to jobs around the universe. The fought for peace, adult females ‘s equality, an terminal to atrociousnesss and democracy. Mandela besides fought against AIDS. This disease killed his boy, Makgatho Mandela in 2005. Mandela was married three times. To Evelyn Ntoko Mase from 1944 boulder clay 1957, they had four kids. From 1958 boulder clay 1996 he was married with Winnie Madikizela-Mandela with whom he had two girls. He ‘s now married to Gra & A ; ccedil ; a Machel since 1998. A closer expression to his actions

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Cause and Effects of Lying Essay

People lie everyday, in someway or another, to keep themselves out of trouble. People lie about all types of situations. Regardless, a lie is a lie. Lying never stops. Each day we make the same choice hundreds of times: whether to lie or tell the truth. We are so quick to over look the obvious yet inconsequential decisions that we make each day about lying and telling the truth. Getting into trouble is most often the situation that everyone tries to avoid and therefor lie about. With all the lying going on in todays society its often nearly impossible to trust anyone anymore. So I ask you when is lying acceptable? Is lying acceptable? How can telling a lie benefit you or hurt you? In my own personal knowledge I understand that we begin lying from almost the time we began speaking until we are taking our last breaths. As small children we lie we lie about little things like if we really pooped in our pants to coloring on the wall and in my opinion I beleive that is only the start. As we get older our daily use of lying gets more and more frequent. As teenagers we feel the need to constantly lie about our grades, chores,our homework, or even what our weekend plans consist of. As adults the lies get even more progressive and more unacceptable. What about lying to impress someone? Possibly the most typical type of lying is due to trying to impress someone. We lie to impress friends,family,co-workers, and even those random people we have no idea who they are. The question is can lying to impress someone help you? Well to answer your question, In some cases yes it can but you still need to be aware of the unintended consequences of lying. Unintended consequences include losing your job for lying about something as simple as your age as well as create a potential problem for future employment. Small children and teenagers are in constant battle with one another of who is better. The downfall to that is the truth being releived. In the end telling a lie is only going to hurt you. There are two effects of lying, the good and the bad. Some good examples of lying can be the obvious no one finds out the truth, But I mean lets face it sooner or later your bound to get caught. Lying to your parents about where you were on saturday night and them never knowing the truth is an excellent example of a positive effect. But on the other hand if you are to get caught in the lie you can face the possible  punishment of grounding, spanking, extra chores and even more. More importanly as adults we lie to our spouses. Lying to our spouse can have some serious longterm effects on our lives and others as well. It may result in divorce,or breakups, unhappiness and missery for the other partner as well as children if they are involved. So you see a lie can benefit you and hurt you. Another example of beneficial lying would be parents and there children. As parents we dont always understand what a child has so enthusiastically dwarn up for us, but we make sure to tell them we do. Those types of lies are probably the only exceptable and beneficial types of lying a person can do. Perhaps if we spent more time thinking on the consequences of lying we wouldn’t do it so frequently. Although a lie may seem beneficial at the time it is normally proceeded by some not so beneficial consequences. Just remember this one important thing lying hurts you more than anything. So if you must lie first ask yourself will I be benefiting anyone from my lie or hurting someone or myself. Stop and think for a moment. Lies equal lack of trust and we all need trust.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Overfishing essays

Overfishing essays Over fishing is when an eco-system has been fished to the detriment or depletion of an organism. This has become an increasingly worse problem here in the Fiji Islands. Fiji has the perfect environment for the fishing industry. The fishing industry has continued to grow due to the large supply of big fish such as tuna. Over 150 fishing licenses have been issued to foreign fishermen from countries such as China, Korea, and Japan. Recently it has become aware to the people that their waters are being overfished, and these foreign vessels are destroying the environment. Overfishing in Fiji waters is caused to the large number of foreign fishing vessels. Some of these vessels are taking illegal steps to ensure they take more fish back home. Recently Greenpeace undertook and investigation in the fishing industry. They found illegal fish vessels in the waters. Fishermen from China would register one boat then paint two or three other boats the same as the registered boat and name it the same as the registered boat. This way it would seem that the boat is a legal registered boat, and then a few days later they would rename and paint the boat and match it with another registered boat. This allows the fish companies to take more fish than they are supposed too without being noticed. Another cause for overfishing is the increased technology. Fishing equipment and vessels have improved so much that it allows for more fish to be caught in strike and it also allows for bigger fish to be caught. This new high tech equipment does not only catch fish, but other marine animals which could lead to extinction. The overfishing is affecting the daily lives of the local people. For many of them their livelihoods depends on the catching and selling of fish. Because the waters are overfished, the locals cannot catch any big fish to sell therefore they cannot buy food or send their children to school. 26% of Fijians are in this position today. ...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Assessment of Qatari Traditional Architecture Responsiveness to the Research Paper

Assessment of Qatari Traditional Architecture Responsiveness to the Environment - Research Paper Example This is not usually the case in most places. Therefore, the architecture has evolved to take the roaring winds into the equation (Mohamed &Bourennane 34). The main environmental challenge that the people and even the architecture have had to adapt to is the desert conditions. There is rarely any vegetation growing by itself. Even in cases where there is vegetation, it is because of the great care that is paid to it. The buildings are today being designed so as to be sustainable. This means they have to take the environment into account. The buildings now are therefore more ‘green’. They make good use of the limited resources i.e water and energy (Mohamed &Bourennane 34). These winds must meet something in the form of a windbreaker or a tree, in places with ordinary environmental conditions. This is not the case in Qatar. The walls of the buildings have been built to be very tall and firm. This means that they play the role of windbreakers even as they provide shelter for the residents of the gulf. This is an important function because wind can be a major irritant as well as a great utility. In this way, architecture has responded to the need for shelter from the winds (Mohamed & Bourennane 37). People have responded to the danger posed by strong winds by living in walled cities and close to one another. They indeed seem to draw their strength from their numbers. This way, they fortify themselves against the winds that can otherwise carry isolated structures with them. Architecture has also responded to this by providing communal models to houses. As a result, shops, mosques and schools are located close to one another (Mohamed & Bourennane 37). Another climatic condition of the gulf that is well recognized is the hot sun. Of course the climatic conditions in the gulf are desert like. This means that the sun is very hot for very long hours of the day. While the sun is hot during the day, the nights are extremely cold. The architecture has responded to this by coming up with the sort of buildings that are thick-walled, and in most cases the roofing is made from materials that are poor conductors of heat. This is to protect the occupants from the hot rays, as well as retain necessary heat for the cold nights (Mohamed & Bourennane 45). Challenges encountered An inquiry of this kind is, admittedly, best carried out in the field. The reasons are simple. It is better to find out about all the different details that are talked about when the object stands physically in front of you. The immediacy of the object also makes you appreciate the tiny nuances that are hard to grasp when explained on paper. Therefore, the first challenge faced was explaining the importance of the study and what it was all about to non-architecture students. They did their best to appreciate architecture. However, beforehand knowledge looked like something that was sorely needed even for the brightest students. This compelled the need to enlighten the student s before the questions were asked. This greatly slowed down the interviews (Groat & Wang 24). Another challenge worth mentioning is that some of the students who were interviewed were of the age where appreciation of architecture is not fully developed. There were students of up to the age of fourteen. The task was extremely hard for those who were of this young age. Consequently, the problem was compounded by the fact that they were non-architecture

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Answering questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Answering questions - Essay Example My writing experience during high school and college can only be described as fun. This is because, in many cases, even during other courses that required an essay, I would find it being so much enjoyable since I usually scoped high grades in those quizzes and assignments. Since writing is my passion, and with my studies now, I have a lot of experience in stories and poems. Since I began my college studies, I have written several poems and stories that I intend to publish in due course. My writing skills also involve writing dissertations and article writing. I usually write articles which are published in our state youth journal that gives me an avenue to explore my skills and talent. My future career is to be consultant in the field of marketing; therefore, my writing skills would be widely used in communicating with my clients and to the markets thereafter. Since marketing strategies involve wide interactions with the customers (people), I intend to sharpen my skills so that I would effectively communicate during my work

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Employee law and relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Employee law and relations - Essay Example The term substantial effect indicates that the disability is not minor or insignificant but constitutes a barrier to perform function in a normal manner. The significant part of the Act is to consider the effect of an impairment rather than the impairment itself. For example, an employer should consider the effects of back pain, migrain, asthma and dyslexia of an employee rather than considering the sickness. However, certain conditions like multiple sclerosis, cancer and HIV is directly considered as disabilities. The Disability Discrimination Act and its amendments requires employers to avoid harassment, victimisation and the three forms of discrimination at work place and ensure fair treatment for disabled individuals. The three forms of unlawful discrimination includes disability linked discrimination, direct discrimination and the failure to provide reasonable adjustment. The failure of the employer to provide reasonable adjustment is not justifiable if the failure was committed with knowledge of a person's disability. Employers can attempt to identify the disability of people and study its effects on the employee and extent resonable adjustment according to the requirement. The The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 requires employers to provide necessary reasonable adjustments to ensure equal opportunities for disabled individuals to continue work and apply for work. Employers can practice reasonable adjustments for disabled employees depending on the disability and associated requirement. Some of the reasonable adjustments that can be made at workplace are changes to workplace layout and improving the accessibility for disable individuals, assigning a part of the disabled person's duties to a temporary employee, changes to work hours - flexible working hours, starting late or ending earlier, job sharing, etc, additional leave for rehabilitation, treatment or assessment, special training for disabled individuals and their subordinates, provision of adaptable equipment and furnitures like desk, chair, vehicles and computer, modification of instructions in Braille or larger font and assisting communication for the visual as well as hearing disabled by appoin ting a reader. Changes to work arrangement can also result in alternative work or work profile which can be adopted as a reasonable adjustment of last resort. A disabled individual seeking reasonable adjustment should reveal the condition to the employer with adequate data that proves the disability. They have a right to confidentiality and the employer is required to hold the information confidentially unless there is explicit permission from the employee to disclose the details to a third party. This is supported by the Data Protection Act 1998 (What counts as a disability in law' 2008). Though Disability Discrimination Act has laid rules to be followed by the employer in providing reasonable adjustment, there are limitations to this additional service. Reasonable adjustment is not mandatory if it cause unjustifiable hardship to the employer. Further, the employer can avail funds for reasonable adjustment from the Workplace Modification scheme to restructure workplace setting or equipment and to adapt to the requirement of disabled

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay Example for Free

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay In To Kill a Mockingbird,1 Harper Lee tells of the terrible wrong of racism in an Alabama town.   To avoid resort to an off-putting dogmatic or preaching style, she uses as her narrator Scout.   Turning six at the novel’s beginning, Jean Louise â€Å"Scout† Finch is a precocious tomboy (81), intelligent (17), decent, and brave, and yet innocent of the complex, sometimes dangerous adult world. (19-22)   She must try to understand why her father, a respected attorney, makes himself a â€Å"nigger-lover† by defending a black man accused of raping a white woman (74-75, 85-86, 87); why, a pacifist, he is called on to shoot a mad dog. (92-97)   Jem, older and more knowing, is a vehicle to help Scout grow up. (58)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Atticus is â€Å"civilized in his heart.† (98)   Scout gradually comes to understand the courage and decency that entails, and the costs sometimes involved.   Atticus acknowledges the racist code of his community; he cannot change it.   But he looks beyond labels to see people for what they are. (75)   Calpurnia is as much a mother to his children as she is his servant. (6, 24-25)   Above all, Atticus has principles:   the presumption of innocence; the right to counsel; the duty to one’s conscience. (75-76)   Holding to these, he tries to pass them on to his children.   (91-93)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Arthur â€Å"Boo† Radley, the ghost-like figure who is both a terror and a delight to the children (8-13, ch. 5-6), is a â€Å"mockingbird.†Ã‚   He harms no one, and wants only to be left alone.   Lee portrays beautifully the small ways in which the children reach out to him (58-63), how he responds to them (71-72), and in the end, the delicacy with which Scout protects his dignity allowing him to take her arm and appear the gentleman, even as she walks him home. (278)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although it is often overlooked, there is beauty in the episode of Mrs. Dubose.   Fighting addiction to morphine, irrational in her pain, struggling in silence, and ultimately prevailing against great difficulty, she earns high and deeply felt praise from Atticus: I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand.   It’s when you know you’re licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what.   You rarely win, but sometimes you do.   Mrs. Dubose won, all ninety-eight pounds of her.   According to her views, she died beholden to nothing and nobody.   She was the bravest person I ever knew.   (112) SOURCE: Lee, Harper, To Kill A Mockingbird.   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania:   J. B. Lippincott Co., 1960.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1Because this is a review essay, in which To Kill a Mockingbird is the single source cited, in-text citations will give only the page numbers, rather than clutter the paper with unnecessary redundancies.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Entrepreneurship Theories and Contributions of

Entrepreneurship Theories and Contributions of INTRODUCTION ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORIES Richard Cantillons theory The concept of the entrepreneur (Joseph Schumpeters theory) The entrepreneur and profit (Ludwig Von Misess theory) The modernization of entrepreneurship and entrepreneur (Alexander Gerschenkrons theory) CONTRIBUTIONS Economical Development Job creation Economic growth Contribution to GDP Evaluation of entrepreneurs success Social Contributions Innovation Improvement of standard of living INTRODUCTION Over the last few decades, entrepreneurship has been a controversial topic between individuals and societies as researchers and economists cannot agree on what a concrete definition of an entrepreneur should be. Over and over again, people asked, a~what is an entrepreneur? To answer this question, its imperative that we examine a range of theories available today. Generally speaking, an entrepreneur is a leader who deals with entrepreneurship challenges to start a new venture, idea and/or enterprise in potential industries. For the most part, people argue that the term a~entrepreneur originated from a French economist by the name of Richard Cantillon. At that time, an entrepreneur is associated with the characteristic of willingness to take the responsibilities for the consequences of risk and uncertainty otherwise known as a a~risk-bearer. Today, entrepreneurs exist all over the different industries and they are churning the industries to become more competitive in nature. Many agre e that the entrepreneurial activity is critically substantial to flourish the economy and the business industry (Cauthorn, 1989) and its required to move large corporations forward through innovative changes. Although theorists cannot agree on traditional definition of an entrepreneur, they do, however, agree on the importance of entrepreneurs role and responsibility in society and in the economy. For these reasons, I am required to examine the range of entrepreneurship theories and how entrepreneurs contribute to our economy and society. 2.0 ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORIES 2.1 Richard Cantillons theory Richard Cantillon was a French economist who greatly contributed to both the economy and other areas of society in the late 17th century and early 18th century. He wrote a number of books and journals during his life and one in particular, a~Essai sur la Natur du Commerce en General, that discussed and examine the role and characteristics of an entrepreneur. According to one famous economist, Murray Rothbard, Cantillon was the first theorist to coin the term entrepreneur. With Cantillons creative formulation, the entrepreneurs are the professional in solving on their tasks. He hires employees by paying for their labour prior to finish producing the product and testing it in the market first to see whether or not the goods will sell. It is difficult to determine the exact reaction of the consumer to our product and its prices. Therefore, sometimes, we may invest all of our money into renting land and paying wages to produce a product that does not even sell. In that case, we lose all of our investments. This unpredictability of the consumers behaviours and responses to our products quality and prices is what Richard Cantillon would classify as a~risk. As Cantillon would say, the individual who act as a market arbitrager and promises employees fixed income while dealing with the risk of unstable market price is a a~risk-bearer; an entrepreneur. Cantillon investigated that the entrepreneurs should be responsible for all the progress and consequences. For example, the entrepreneur should be a risk taker on his/her business whether it goes successful or not and he/she needs to be evaluated by the consumers in competitive market. In order to pay the wage for employees and land usage, the entrepreneur should earn the profit much more than his/her expenses. As the entrepreneur makes an uncertain profit due to an uncertain selling price, they should maximise their selling quantities. According to Cantillon, the entrepreneur is an individual that balances between supplie s and demands in the economy. 2.2 The Concept of The Entrepreneur (Joseph Schumpeters theory) This innovative trait was not highly considered as the most fundamental identity of an entrepreneurship back before Schumpeter made develop his theory. What he was investigating has been a factor that missed everyones mind at the time, but that is not important. The main reason why most people did not consider it is because economist cannot fit entrepreneurship into its theory for some reasons therefore some economics who already have done some work on entrepreneurship have the tendency to be follow Cantillons or Says way of thinking. But, for Schumpeter, he needed to investigate other ways of defining entrepreneurship and move away from the traditional models or to search for an alternative understanding. He then discovered that the entrepreneur provides a wide range of price options to have innovative trade and generally, they wish to buy materials with much cheaper price and sell them. Schumpeter used a different approach, compared to Cantillon, when defining his entrepreneur. He heavily emphasized the innovative characteristic as the main function of an entrepreneur. He stated that an entrepreneur is the person who creates new combinations from existing goods and resources in the market. The entrepreneur mainly focuses on developing new products, discovering new markets, investigating new type of organization. From Schumpeters point of view, the entrepreneur is the person who guides new way to create a totally new product. In other words, it is necessary for both the entrepreneurs and consumers. Old industries have lost its usefulness as newly generated innovative methods are introduced because with the new methods, production will be more efficient. The firm will be able to produce more at a lower cost. The production frontier will also be pushed outward. This makes old inventions obsolete and unwanted. Sometimes, even if the economy is depressed by some factors, there is adequate number of stock requested and it motivates the entrepreneurs to start being innovative again. In this way of circulation, Schumpeter utilized entrepreneurship to clarify economic growth, structural change, and business circle by exemplifying his arrangement of economic and his ideas. 2.3 The Entrepreneur and Profit (Ludwig Von Misess theory) In capitalism, the entrepreneurs decide whether to invest or not to invest for their production. If they are unsuccessful to generate in efficient and cheapest way those products that the clients are demanding most urgently, they would be suffered losses and are ultimately dismissed from their competitive entrepreneurial position. Other better entrepreneurs who performed better would be replaced their position. Making decision is an essential activity for the entrepreneur. According to Ludwig Mises who was also Austrian economist, he said he determines for what purpose the factors of production should be employed. (Swedberg, p 91) Any other activities which entrepreneurs should perform are only unintentional to his entrepreneurial concern. Mises stated that there is a common rule that the difference between the entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. Non-entrepreneurs would be confused profits how it should be maximised with other sources. The entrepreneurs are not always perfect of the ir performances due to some reasons. Their position would be reserved by them because they are more responsible and better fit for the performance than other people are in business dealing. They make profit not because they are smart in achieving their duty but they are smarter than other people are. They are not unerring and sometimes making error but they are less responsible and confused less than other people do in entrepreneurship. After of all, Mises concluded his theory that an entrepreneur makes profit by serving the consumers which means the relationship between them is considerably necessary because the primary factor indicating the entrepreneur whether to be successful or not is how they deal with the people, especially the consumers. 2.4 The Modernization of Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur (Alexander Gerschenkrons theory) Many people will probably agree that the entrepreneurs are considered as the most essential element in the economy and its transformation. There are various ways to define an entrepreneur and it has been argued the definition of entrepreneur for a long time. According to Gerschenkron, for his purpose, it is appropriate to say that economic decisions are determined by the entrepreneurs. Whether it is a small or big decision, or whether the market price has been increased or decreased, all decisions in this process can be called, entrepreneurial decisions. These days, the industry needs large amounts of fixed capital to operate their system because it requires the property, land and machinery. This means entrepreneurs should predict far ahead and be able to make the right decisions into the future. Gerschenkron said the modern industry was indivisible either from the part of technological and organisational movement. New approached to the economy would be continuously appeared and it s hould be developed for both the entrepreneurs and economy. Now only few numbers of entrepreneurs were innovators but most of them are mimics, who were called as a~secondary wave by Schumpeter. The difference between the innovators and the mimics has not been identified clearly however every imitated product from mimics raises large numbers of technical and economical problems that has to be solved immediately. Generally, entrepreneurs  use money as capital and employ staff in order to generate their production however it is very usual circulation how the industrialization is made of. The modern entrepreneurship should be created and new ways approaching to the entrepreneurship should be discovered to develop industrial revolution. ECONOMICS CONTRIBUTIONS 3.1 Job Creations Although the number of employment opportunity has been on decline recent, as a result of the economic downturn and various other many reasons, the role of entrepreneur has still been considered as the key agent responsibility over creation of jobs. Even though most people associate entrepreneurship with self-employment, it is important to notice that in most cases, regardless of how small or big the firm is, a new start-up by an entrepreneur, more often than not, will generate jobs. Assuming that an entrepreneur is an innovative figure as argued by Schumpeter, then when he enters the market, he must be enter with either a new product or services or creating a completely new market segment. Because of this innovative edge, their company will likely to grow as demand increases. This upward demand would require that the firm hires more people to increase production. That is how jobs get created. Especially at this stage in the economic recession, entrepreneur is a substantial agent in h elping move the economy forward and reducing unemployment. According to a recent study in the United Kingdom, the unemployment rate has become a serious issue as the rate continues to climb higher and higher. The figure below illustrates an upward sloping graph indicating that the number of unemployment rate has risen as more and more people fail to obtain a job or get fired. (as cited in trading economics, 2010) From this point, the role of entrepreneurs has been emphasised and they should create more job opportunities. If the government just push for new firms that are not innovative, the firm will probably only provide the same old jobs instead of creating something innovative. The old jobs are not preferable because they do not help in pushing the production efficiency upward. Therefore, we need to encourage the innovative designs of entrepreneurs to help push the production function outward through the creation of something innovative and then driving up demand, as a result of this creativeness, to alleviate unemployment. 3.2 Economic Growth In a way, entrepreneurship and economic growth have a close connection with each other in the sense that when high levels of entrepreneurial activities are present, the economy seems to grow along with it as well. As Schumpeter have discussed in his papers, a growing number of entrepreneurs will boost up the development in economic growth. Swedberg (2000) stated that the significant changes in the economy fields would be managed by the entrepreneur and these important changes would be working slowly by themselves through the business circle. He also implied his thought of change was both economic aspects and social aspects. We still expect high volume of entrepreneurship would associate with economic growth and its development. Therefore, a large number of entrepreneurs should be encouraged to get involved in entrepreneurial activities and should continue to make progress in productive activities, because these activities will lead to economic development. 3.3 Contribution to GDP Over the last few years, the entrepreneurs had contributed tremendously to the recovery of the economy by sustaining or boosting GDP growth, depending on the country. Though the total numbers of new business has slightly decreased, entrepreneurial enterprises still occupies a large percentage of the total number of firms in the countrys GDP (Gross Domestic Profit). Take the private sector in Vietnam for example, it has been estimated that the number of enterprises account for 39 percent of the countrys total GDP (a~Entrepreneurs contributions to national development, n.d.). It has stated that Vietnamese businesses and entrepreneurs have performed well in boosting up the national economy (a~Entrepreneurs contributions to national development n.d.). When the entrepreneur enters the market with his or her creative idea, he or she will attract more consumers to the product because its new and innovative. As more people seek out the goods, the demand for the goods will increase. This incr ease in demand translates to more supplies being required. The firm will need to produce more to not only meet the increased demand in the domestic market, but it will also have to produce more to meet increased demand internationally as well. This increase in production contributes directly into the Gross Domestic Products. 3.4 Evaluation of Entrepreneurs Success. Essential components to be successful in entrepreneurship are considered by many people. Based on its personality and characteristics, the performance of entrepreneur has direct impact to its success and it has been considered by four basic scales to decide whether they are successful or not. First, achievement in business field would be considered. It is the factual evidence how they are performing well in business and it should be first thing that should be indicated. Second, innovation in business should be considered. Based on innovators, it is always required to be innovative and acquisition of new change in business therefore entrepreneurs should be revolutionary innovative and try to attempt to be reformer. Next, entrepreneur should perceive personal control of business consequence. It is important for both the entrepreneurs and individuals due to recognition of business trends and movement. Lastly, entrepreneurs should have self-esteem in their business. It helps dealing with consumers and building reputation. SOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS 3.5 Innovation Drucker (a~Innovation and entrepreneurship Drucker, P. F.) has been telling us the story about William Conner, a salesperson in the medical industry who decided to start up his own business. Corner begins by having discussions about the problems that surgeons faced during their operations. From these discussions, he was able to learn a lot about the process of a cataract surgery and how it was amazingly easy to operate. While operating, surgeons must make sure that they cut one ligament that has proven to be risky. Conner researched further and learned that theres an enzyme that can melt away those ligaments. He also figured out how to preserve these enzymes during operation procedures. Soon after, he received a patent for his product and that compelled him to enter the niche market with his new way to surgically remove cataracts. With the use of this case, Drucker illustrated how entrepreneurial activities can bring about innovation. William Conner did not care too much about the ca taract surgery; he cared about making profits. It just so happened that when he tried to make the profit, he also contributed to society by inventing something new and improves in its ability to make people healthier. Although, we probably guess how the population will be changing in next few years, it will be so hard to get this kind of chance. These days, many entrepreneurs try to concentrate on a specific industry and on opportunities that already exist, even if its in small and declining industry. Therefore, once again, we must arrange and create policies that can encourage entrepreneurs to be more innovative because their innovations can truly help improve life. 3.6 Improvement standards of living The industrial revolution was considered as one of the most important historical stage in terms of how it helped to improve the standards of living. Increase productivities, innovations, demand and economic growth have all combine to increase and improve employment opportunities. People who never had a job before now have a mean to make money and people who previously had jobs now can move on to a better paying job. With this new income, or increased income, people will be able to purchase more goods to make their life better and healthier. Entrepreneurship plays a significant role in this improvement in standards of living. Entrepreneurs are able to do this my generating more jobs for the people. With these jobs, they will be able to earn an income that can be used to sustain a better or improved lifestyle. Secondly, the innovative nature of an entrepreneur also contributes to this social betterment. As entrepreneurs seek out an opportunity in the market by bringing about new invent ions or combination, they are improving the quality of life in the sense that those new inventions will make life easier, ergonomically speaking. For example, the invention of the iPhone was based on the intention of making money in the market, but as we have learned, it has truly helped people improve their standards of living in that the applications that exist in the iPhone can automate a lot of activities that would normally take manual labour. iPhone have the capacity to act a remote in various areas, make life less tiring. REFERENCES Swedberg, R. (Eds) (2000). Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 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